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Table 1 Summary information about treatment and treatment delivery system

From: Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review

  Cryotherapy* LEEP*
  n (%) n (%)
Indications/contraindications**     
   Restrictions based on lesion size and extension 8 (72.7) 0 (0.0)
   Transformation zone entirely visible 6 (54.5) 2 (12.5)
   No evidence of invasive disease 6 (54.5) 5 (31.3)
   No history of screening or treatment for CIN 7 (63.6) 2 (12.5)
   No gynecologic abnormality 4 (36.4) 1 (6.3)
   No severe cervicitis 1 (9.1) 2 (12.5)
   Restrictions for pregnant women†† 6 (54.5) 3 (18.8)
   Contraindication to cryotherapy 0 (0.0) 5 (31.3)
Enrollment**     
   Community outreach 7 (63.6) 4 (25.0)
   Primary care/local health centers 3 (27.3) 1 (6.3)
   Gynecologic clinic/tertiary care 3 (27.3) 10 (62.5)
   Not reported 0 (0.0) 1 (6.3)
Type of treatment center**     
   Gynecologic clinic/tertiary care 4 (36.4) 12 (75.0)
   District hospital 2 (18.2) 2 (12.5)
   Primary care center/mobile unit 8 (72.7) 1 (6.3)
   Not reported 1 (9.1) 1 (6.3)
Number of treatment centers     
   One 5 (45.5) 16 (100)
   Two or more 5 (45.5) 0 (0)
   Not reported 1 (9.1) 0 (0)
Operator     
   Gynecologist, surgeon 1 (9.1) 4 (25.0)
   Doctor, general practitioner 2 (18.2) 4 (25.0)
   Nurse, "less qualified personnel" 5 (45.5) 1 (6.3)
   Not reported 3 (27.3) 7 (43.8)
Number of operators     
   One 1 (9.1) 1 (6.3)
   Two to five 1 (9.1) 5 (31.3)
   Six or more 5 (45.5) 0 (0)
   Not reported 4 (36.4) 10 (62.5)
Control of pain     
   No specific measure/Non-narcotic analgesics as needed 5 (45.5) 0 (0.0)
   Local anesthesia 0 (0.0) 12 (75.0)
   General anesthesia 0 (0.0) 1 (6.3)
   Not reported 6 (54.5) 3 (18.8)
Antibiotherapy (pre-treatment)     
   Signs of cervicitis or STD 3 (27.3) 2 (12.5)
   All women 4 (36.4) 3 (18.8)
   Not reported 4 (36.4) 11 (68.8)
  1. *Cryotherapy, 11 studies; LEEP, 16 studies.
  2. **Total percent add to more than 100%, because some studies are represented in more than one item category.
  3. Abnormalities such as polyp or cervical atrophy, for instance.
  4. ††Different gestational ages across studies.