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Table 2 Premenstrual symptom scores among young women born at VLBW and their counterparts born at term

From: Premenstrual symptoms in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight - from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults

  VLBW
N = 75
Term
N = 95
  
  VLBW
Mean
Term
Mean
Mean difference
(95% CI)b
Mean difference
(95% CI)c
Total score before menses 9.9a 12.5a -19.4% (-38.2 to 5.0%) -18.3% (-37.9 to 7.5%)
Total score after menses 3.4a 4.3a -17.7% (-41.8 to 16.3%) -14.7% (-40.5 to 22.5%)
Difference between total score before and after menses 7.6 8.1 -0.56 (-2.96 to 1.85) -0.71 (-3.24 to 1.83)
  N (%) N (%) Odds ratio (95% CI) b Odds ratio (95% CI) c
PMDDd (DSM-IV) 6 (8.0) 4 (4.2) 1.97 (0.53 to 7.25) 1.82 (0.47 to 7.07)
PMDD symptomse 7 (9.3) 9 (9.5) 0.97 (0.34 to 2.76) 0.99 (0.33 to 2.93)
PMS (ACOG)f 9 (12.0) 11 (11.6) 1.03 (0.40 to 2.65) 1.00 (0.37 to 2.67)
PMS symptoms seriously interfere with work, social activities, relationships 10 (13.3) 14 (14.7) 0.88 (0.37 to 2.12) 0.89 (0.35 to 2.23)
Presence of each premenstrual symptom before menses     
Depressed mood or hopelessness 8 (10.7) 4 (4.2) 2.71 (0.78 to 9.39) 2.24 (0.61 to 8.27)
Tension or anxiety 16 (21.3) 24 (25.3) 0.80 (0.39 to 1.64) 0.86 (0.40 to 1.87)
Affective lability 16 (21.3) 27 (28.4) 0.68 (0.33 to 1.39) 0.56 (0.26 to 1.19)
Irritability 13 (17.3) 24 (25.3) 0.62 (0.29 to 1.32) 0.61 (0.28 to 1.36)
Decrease interest in activities 6 (8.0) 5 (5.3) 1.56 (0.45 to 5.43) 1.51 (0.41 to 5.53)
Difficulty concentrating 6 (8.0) 5 (5.3) 1.57 (0.45 to 5.47) 1.59 (0.43 to 5.84)
Lack of energy 7 (9.3) 11 (11.6) 0.77 (0.28 to 2.10) 0.82 (0.29 to 2.34)
Change in appetite, e.g., food cravings 17 (22.7) 16 (16.8) 1.44 (0.67 to 3.09) 1.34 (0.60 to 2.99)
Change in sleep 8 (10.7) 9 (9.5) 1.13 (0.41 to 3.10) 1.00 (0.35 to 2.91)
Feeling out of control or overwhelmed 3 (4.0) 5 (5.3) 0.75 (0.17 to 3.24) 0.90 (0.19 to 4.23)
Other physical symptoms, e.g., breast tenderness,
bloating
20 (26.7) 32 (33.7) 0.72 (0.37 to 1.41) 0.68 (0.34 to 1.38)
  1. a) Geometric mean
  2. b) Adjusted for age
  3. c) Adjusted for age, parental education, body mass index, current use of hormonal contraception, own current smoking and maternal smoking during pregnancy.
  4. d) The prevalence of PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) based on DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria
  5. e) A person has premenstrually at least one of the following symptoms: depressed mood or hopelessness, tension or anxiety, affective lability or irritability, and the symptoms seriously interfere with work, social activities or relationships and work.
  6. f) The prevalence of PMS (premenstrual syndrome) based on ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) criteria