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Table 1 Selected characteristics of women participating in the NJ Ovarian Cancer Study.

From: Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

  Cases (n= 205)
n (%)
Controls (n= 391)
n (%)
OR (95% CI)*
Education      
   High school or less 61 (29.8) 133 (34.0) 1.00 (Ref)
   College 93 (45.4) 159 (40.7) 0.90 (0.59-1.38)
   Graduate school 51 (24.9) 99 (25.3) 0.76 (0.47-1.24)
Race/ethnicity      
   White 179 (87.3) 344 (88.4) 1.00 (Ref)
   Black 9 (4.4) 17 (4.4) 1.02 (0.42-2.44)
   Other 8 (3.9) 17 (4.4) 0.82 (0.33-1.99)
   Hispanic (any race) 9 (4.4) 11 (2.8) 1.13 (0.44-2.92)
BMI      
   Underweight (< 18.5) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 1.02 (0.06-17.31)
   Normal (18.5-25) 90 (43.9) 180 (46.4) 1.00 (Ref)
   Overweight (25-29.9) 54 (26.3) 122 (31.4) 1.07 (0.69-1.65)
   Obese (30-34.9) 36 (17.6) 59 (15.2) 1.39 (0.83-2.32)
   Very obese (≥ 35) 24 (11.7) 26 (6.7) 1.54 (0.81-2.89)
Parity      
   0 - 1 97 (47.3) 92 (23.5) 1.00 (Ref)
   2 60 (29.3) 137 (35.0) 0.45 (0.29-0.69)
   ≥ 3 48 (23.4) 162 (41.4) 0.42 (0.26-0.66)
Smoking status      
   Never 108 (52.7) 204 (52.2) 1.00 (Ref)
   Past 78 (38.1) 149 (38.1) 1.12 (0.76-1.64)
   Current 19 (9.3) 38 (9.7) 0.87 (0.46-1.62)
Oral contraceptive use      
   Never 85 (41.5) 193 (49.4) 1.00 (Ref)
   Ever 120 (58.5) 198 (50.6) 0.88 (0.61-1.28)
Use of HRT      
   Never 159 (77.6) 285 (72.9) 1.00 (Ref)
   Unopposed E only 22 (10.7) 34 (8.7) 1.56 (0.86-2.84)
   Any combined HRT 24 (11.7) 72 (18.4) 0.63 (0.38-1.06)
Age at menarche      
   > 13 41 (20.1) 99 (25.4) 0.81 (0.51-1.27)
   12-13 117 (57.4) 200 (51.3) 1.00 (Ref)
   ≤11 46 (22.6) 91 (23.3) 0.75 (0.48-1.17)
Menopause status      
Premenopausal 71 (34.6) 49 (12.5) 1.51 (0.85-2.69)
Postmenopausal      
   Age at menopause      
   < 40 5 (2.4) 14 (3.6) 0.77 (0.26-2.31)
   41-54 86 (42.0) 239 (61.3) 1.00 (Ref)
   ≥ 55 12 (5.9) 37 (9.5) 0.99 (0.48-2.01)
   Unknown 31 (15.1) 52 (13.3) 1.52 (0.91-2.56)
Tubal Ligation      
   No 175 (85.4) 315 (80.6) 1.00 (Ref)
   Yes 30 (14.6) 76 (19.4) 0.59 (0.36-0.94)
First relative with ovarian cancer      
   No 195 (95.1) 377 (96.4) 1.00 (Ref)
   Yes 10 (4.9) 14 (3.6) 1.32 (0.55-3.17)
  1. *Adjusted for age