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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted percentage of women experiencing various symptoms of depression, by exposure to intimate partner violence, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondent, partners characteristics, and exposure to domestic abuse in the parental household

From: Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

  Symptoms of depression
Feels tired all the time   Cries easily   Difficulty doing daily activities   Difficulty making decisions  
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage
  (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI)
Intimate partner violence         
  No abuse (reference) 49.8 49.9 72.1 72.7 28.0 28.0 42.1 42.7
(48.1-51.6) (48.2-51.6) (70.6-73.7) (71.2-74.2) (26.3-29.7) (26.4-29.7) (40.3-43.8) (41.0-44.4)
  Psychol. abuse only 55.9*** 57.5*** 74.6 74.2 33.6*** 34.0*** 50.8*** 50.8***
(53.6-58.3) (55.2-59.8) (72.2-77.0) (71.8-76.6) (31.3-35.9) (31.7-36.3) (48.2-53.3) (48.2-53.4)
  Physical abuse (no sexual) 56.3*** 55.5** 79.4*** 78.6*** 34.1*** 34.1*** 51.9*** 50.7***
(53.6-58.9) (52.9-58.1) (77.1-81.7) (76.3-80.9) (31.4-36.7) (31.4-36.8) (49.1-54.7) (47.9-53.6)
  Sexual abuse¥ 68.3*** 66.4*** 86.3*** 85.9*** 43.8*** 42.4*** 63.8*** 62.4***
(64.0-72.5) (62.2-70.6) (83.1-89.6) (82.4-89.3) (39.0-48.7) (37.6-47.1) (59.5-68.2) (58.2-66.6)
Respondent experienced physical abuse in childhood         
  No (reference)   52.3   72.1   31.0   45.9
  (50.1-54.5)   (70.1-74.0)   (28.7-33.3)   (43.5-48.3)
  Yes   54.3   76.2***   31.6   47.9
  (52.9-55.7)   (75.0-77.5)   (30.2-33.1)   (46.4-49.4)
Respondent experienced psychological abuse in childhood         
  No (reference)   55.4   75.7   31.9   48.7
  (54.0-56.9)   (74.3-77.1)   (30.2-33.6)   (47.0-50.3)
  Yes   51.4**   74.1   30.8   45.6*
  (49.5-53.4)   (72.4-75.8)   (29.0-32.7)   (43.5-47.6)
Respondent reports father beat mother         
  No (reference)   53.3   73.2   30.9   44.1
  (51.5-55.1)   (71.6-74.8)   (29.3-32.5)   (42.3-45.9)
  Yes/Don’t know   54.1   76.7**   31.9   50.1***
  (52.4-55.8)   (75.3-78.0)   (30.2-33.6)   (48.4-51.8)
Region         
  La Paz (reference)   62.3   78.9   34.6   51.8
  (59.8-64.7)   (76.6-81.2)   (31.9-37.4)   (49.3-54.3)
  Chuquisaca   44.8***   80.2   24.8***   48.3
  (39.6-50.0)   (77.3-83.0)   (20.6-29.0)   (44.3-52.3)
  Cochabamba   57.8*   77.0   35.6   47.0*
  (54.8-60.9)   (74.7-79.4)   (32.3-39.0)   (43.7-50.4)
  Oruro   49.0***   73.5**   27.2**   47.3*
  (45.3-52.6)   (70.2-76.8)   (23.5-31.0)   (43.5-51.0)
  Potosí   54.5***   65.3***   27.4**   43.8**
  (51.0-57.9)   (61.6-68.9)   (23.6-31.3)   (38.5-49.1)
  Tarija   53.1***   73.7*   38.1   55.2
  (49.6-56.6)   (70.2-77.2)   (34.9-41.3)   (51.6-58.7)
  Santa Cruz   45.9***   73.2**   28.8**   44.0***
  (43.1-48.7)   (70.6-75.9)   (26.3-31.4)   (41.8-46.2)
  Beni   33.9***   70.5***   21.3***   32.3***
  (28.1-39.6)   (66.8-74.1)   (17.5-25.1)   (27.0-37.6)
  Pando   54.2**   66.8***   31.3   46.5
  (48.8-59.5)   (61.9-71.8)   (26.4-36.2)   (39.4-53.5)
Residence         
  Urban (reference)   54.6   75.1   31.5   47.4
  (52.5-56.6)   (73.4-76.9)   (29.4-33.5)   (45.3-49.4)
  Rural   52.4   74.8   31.4   47.3
  (49.5-55.3)   (72.5-77.2)   (28.5-34.3)   (46.2-50.4)
Education         
  None (reference)   57.7   76.2   34.0   45.3
  (52.1-63.3)   (71.3-81.2)   (28.9-39.2)   (39.6-51.0)
  Primary   57.8   74.4   33.5   49.7
  (55.7-59.9)   (72.5-76.3)   (31.6-35.5)   (44.1-48.9)
  Secondary   50.2*   77.2   28.9   47.7
  (47.6-52.9)   (74.9-79.4)   (26.4-31.4)   (45.0-50.4)
  Higher   44.1**   72.4   26.9   38.3
  (39.4-48.9)   (68.2-76.7)   (22.8-31.0)   (33.5-43.1)
SES         
  First quintile (reference)   57.4   72.6   30.4   45.1
  (53.1-61.7)   (69.2-76.1)   (26.6-34.2)   (41.0-49.2)
  Second quintile   55.2   74.4   34.1   46.6
  (51.7-58.8)   (71.6-77.3)   (30.8-37.3)   (43.6-49.7)
  Third quintile   55.7   75.9   35.3   50.0
  (53.0-58.3)   (73.6-78.3)   (32.4-38.1)   (47.3-52.6)
  Fourth quintile   53.1   78.4*   33.0   50.6
  (50.2-56.1)   (75.8-80.9)   (30.0-36.0)   (47.5-53.8)
  Fifth quintile   47.4**   73.2   23.6*   43.4
  (43.5-51.2)   (69.9-76.6)   (20.2-26.9)   (39.9-47.0)
Work status         
  Not working (reference)   51.6   75.1   29.8   46.5
  (49.5-53.7)   (73.3-76.9)   (27.8-31.8)   (44.3-48.6)
  Working   54.8   75.0   32.3   47.8
  (53.3-56.3)   (73.6-76.3)   (30.7-33.8)   (46.3-49.3)
Age         
  15-24 (reference)   48.1   72.0   27.9   49.2
  (43.8-52.3)   (67.7-76.2)   (23.9-32.0)   (44.6-53.8)
  25-34   52.1   74.5   30.3   46.5
  (50.0-54.3)   (72.5-76.6)   (28.2-32.5)   (44.1-48.9)
  35-44   56.6**   75.8   32.7   46.3
  (53.9-59.3)   (73.4-78.1)   (30.0-35.3)   (43.6-49.1)
  45-49   59.5**   78.5   36.4*   50.0
  (55.0-63.9)   (74.5-82.5)   (31.6-41.1)   (44.8-55.3)
Marital status         
  Married (reference)   54.8   75.2   30.9   46.8
  (53.3-56.4)   (73.8-76.7)   (29.4-32.5)   (45.2-48.4)
  Cohabiting   51.9*   75.0   32.4   48.3
  (49.8-54.1)   (72.5-76.7)   (30.3-34.4)   (46.2-50.4)
Partner’s age         
  14-24 (reference)   54.1   76.6   32.4   48.0
  (48.7-59.5)   (72.2-80.9)   (27.4-37.4)   (42.4-53.6)
  25-34   54.0   76.2   28.4   46.2
  (51.4-56.6)   (74.0-78.5)   (25.8-31.0)   (43.5-49.0)
  35-44   53.5   74.0   31.7   48.4
  (51.4-55.7)   (71.9-76.1)   (29.6-33.9)   (46.0-50.8)
  45+   53.5   73.9   35.2   47.1
  (49.6-57.4)   (70.2-77.7)   (31.4-39.0)   (42.9-51.3)
Partner’s age, relative to respondent         
  Same age or younger (ref.)   55.4   76.7   33.2   47.7
  (52.8-58.0)   (74.5-78.8)   (30.8-35.6)   (45.2-50.2)
  1-5 yrs. older   53.1   74.2   31.2   47.2
  (51.4-54.7)   (72.5-75.8)   (29.5-33.0)   (45.4-49.0)
  6+ yrs. older   53.1   74.7   29.9   47.1
  (50.4-55.7)   (72.4-77.0)   (27.4-32.4)   (44.5-49.8)
Partner’s education         
  None (reference)   52.6   75.4   20.3   41.7
  (42.9-62.4)   (67.8-82.9)   (12.5-28.0)   (32.4-51.0)
  Primary   55.7   75.4   32.0**   47.1
  (53.3-58.1)   (73.3-77.5)   (29.9-34.2)   (44.7-49.6)
  Secondary   55.0   75.2   32.1*   49.3
  (52.9-57.2)   (73.2-77.3)   (30.2-34.0)   (47.2-51.5)
  Higher   46.6   73.8   29.6   44.3
  (42.5-50.6)   (70.4-77.2)   (26.0-33.2)   (40.3-48.3)
Education difference between partners         
  Wife is more educated (ref.)   53.5   73.9   31.1   46.5
  (50.7-56.3)   (71.2-76.5)   (28.4-33.8)   (43.4-49.5)
  Same level of education   50.3   73.9   29.0   46.1
  (47.7-52.9)   (71.4-76.4)   (26.7-31.2)   (43.7-48.6)
  Husband is more educated   55.3   73.8   32.6   48.2
   (53.4-57.2)   (74.3-77.6)   (30.7-34.5)   (46.2-50.1)
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001.
  2. Ψ Respondents who experienced sexual abuse may also have experienced psychological and/or physical abuse.