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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted percentage of women who experienced various symptoms of anxiety, symptoms of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and of psychotic disorders, by exposure to intimate partner violence, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondent, partners characteristics, and exposure to domestic abuse in the parental household

From: Intimate partner violence and mental health in Bolivia

  Symptoms of anxiety Symptoms of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Symptoms of psychotic disorders
  Feelings of fear for no apparent reason Scares easily Headaches of great intensity Convulsions, attacks with tongue biting Hears voices that others do not hear
  (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage
  (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI) (CI)
Intimate partner violence           
  No abuse (reference) 45.6 46.0 62.8 63.3 51.0 50.8 6.5 6.4 11.2 11.5
(43.9-47.3) (44.3-47.7) (61.1-64.6) (61.6-65.0) (49.3-52.7) (49.1-52.4) (5.7-7.4) (5.6-7.2) (10.1-12.3) (10.4-12.7)
  Psychol. abuse only 49.0* 49.7* 67.0** 67.0* 58.5*** 58.9** 8.3* 8.6** 13.9* 13.5
(46.4-51.6) (50.8-56.2) (64.7-69.4) (64.6-69.4) (55.9-61.1) (56.4-61.5) (6.7-9.8) (7.0-10.2) (12.0-15.7) (11.7-15.3)
  Physical abuse (no sexual) 54.9*** 53.5*** 67.6** 66.6 58.0*** 58.3*** 9.3** 9.4*** 15.7*** 15.3**
(52.1-57.7) (50.8-56.2) (64.9-70.3) (63.9-69.4) (55.3-60.7) (55.6-60.9) (7.7-10.8) (7.9-11.0) (13.4-17.9) (13.0-17.5)
  Sexual abuse¥ 61.2*** 59.3*** 72.8*** 71.8*** 66.9*** 65.5*** 13.1*** 12.4*** 25.2*** 24.0***
(56.9-65.5) (55.1-63.7) (68.5-77.1) (67.6-76.0) (62.4-71.4) (61.1-69.9) (9.9-16.4) (9.2-15.6) (21.0-29.3) (20.1-27.9)
Respondent experienced physical abuse in childhood           
  No (reference)   47.2   64.0   52.1   7.0   12.2
  (44.9-50.9)   (61.8-66.1)   (49.9-54.4)   (5.7-8.3)   (10.6-13.8)
  Yes   49.9   65.9   56.1**   8.2   14.1
  (48.4-51.4)   (64.4-67.3)   (54.7-57.5)   (7.4-9.0)   (13.0-15.2)
Respondent experienced psychological abuse in childhood           
  No (reference)   49.3   64.8   55.3   8.0   14.0
  (47.7-50.9)   (63.2-66.4)   (53.7-56.9)   (7.1-8.9)   (12.8-15.2)
  Yes   49.0   66.0   54.5   7.7   13.0
  (47.1-50.9)   (64.2-67.8)   (52.6-56.3)   (6.7-8.7)   (11.7-14.3)
Respondent reports father beat her mother           
  No (reference)   48.4   64.3   54.2   7.0   12.7
  (46.6-50.2)   (62.6-66.0)   (52.3-56.0)   (6.1-8.0)   (11.3-14.1)
  Yes/Don’t know   49.8   66.2   55.6   8.5*   14.3
  (48.0-51.2)   (64.6-67.8)   (53.9-57.4)   (7.5-9.5)   (13.1-15.4)
Region           
  La Paz (reference)   53.3   69.9   54.3   6.9   13.5
  (50.5-56.1)   (67.6-72.3)   (51.9-56.8)   (5.6-8.1)   (11.4-15.5)
  Chuquisaca   43.0**   60.7***   54.5   5.2   6.7***
  (37.9-48.2)   (56.4-65.0)   (48.0-61.0)   (3.7-6.8)   (4.7-8.7)
  Cochabamba   50.8   66.4*   61.0**   11.3***   15.2
  (48.1-53.6)   (63.3-69.5)   (58.0-64.0)   (9.0-13.7)   (13.3-17.2)
  Oruro   49.0   63.3**   50.1   6.5   6.8***
  (44.5-53.4)   (59.5-67.2)   (44.6-55.6)   (4.7-8.3)   (4.8-8.8)
  Potosí   46.1   58.6***   45.8***   7.7   10.7
  (41.5-50.6)   (54.6-62.5)   (42.2-49.3)   (5.5-9.7)   (8.2-13.2)
  Tarija   51.9   68.5   58.3   7.6   17.5*
  (48.6-55.2)   (64.6-72.4)   (55.2-61.4)   (5.5-9.7)   (14.5-20.5)
  Santa Cruz   45.6***   64.8**   55.0   6.7   16.1
  (43.0-48.1)   (61.8-67.7)   (52.1-57.9)   (5.4-8.0)   (13.8-18.4)
  Beni   46.3*   51.3***   58.6   11.6**   12.2
  (41.0-51.7)   (45.9-56.6)   (54.2-63.0)   (8.3-14.8)   (9.4-14.9)
  Pando   44.3**   61.3**   59.6   12.9***   21.1**
  (39.6-49.0)   (56.5-66.1)   (54.4-64.6)   (9.4-16.3)   (16.6-25.7)
Residence           
  Urban (reference)   48.5   64.9   53.1   6.9   13.7
  (46.5-50.5)   (62.8-66.9)   (50.7-55.4)   (5.8-8.0)   (12.2-15.2)
  Rural   50.1   66.0   58.0   9.0   13.4
  (47.2-53.1)   (63.4-68.6)   (54.7-61.2)   (7.5-10.6)   (11.4-15.4)
Education           
  None (reference)   53.1   69.4   61.1   7.5   11.3
  (47.6-58.6)   (64.4-74.4)   (55.4-66.7)   (5.1-9.9)   (7.7-14.9)
  Primary   51.0   67.5   58.9   8.2   14.7
  (49.0-53.0)   (65.5-66.7)   (56.7-61.1)   (7.2-9.3)   (13.2-16.3)
  Secondary   48.6   64.2   51.3**   7.5   13.1
  (46.0-51.2)   (61.7-66.7)   (48.6-54.0)   (6.0-9.0)   (11.2-14.9)
  Higher   41.3**   58.2**   45.3***   6.8   10.9
  (36.3-46.4)   (53.5-62.9)   (40.4-50.3)   (4.3-9.4)   (7.5-14.3)
SES           
  First (reference)   50.1   66.6   57.9   9.1   11.5
  (46.3-53.9)   (62.8-70.4)   (53.9-61.9)   (7.0-11.1)   (9.1-14.0)
  Second   49.2   66.9   52.4**   7.7   14.4*
  (45.9-52.4)   (63.8-70.1)   (48.2-56.7)   (6.2-9.3)   (12.1-16.8)
  Third   51.4   67.2   55.3   7.9   15.1
  (48.7-54.1)   (64.6-69.8)   (52.6-58.0)   (6.3-9.6)   (12.9-17.2)
  Fourth   49.1   65.3   55.2   6.5   14.3
  (46.2-52.0)   (62.5-68.0)   (52.1-58.4)   (4.9-8.2)   (12.3-16.3)
  Fifth   45.8   60.8   54.0   7.8   12.0
  (42.2-49.5)   (57.6-64.0)   (50.1-57.9)   (5.7-9.9)   (9.5-14.5)
Work status           
  Not working (reference)   47.8   65.5   55.4   7.0   12.4
  (45.7-49.9)   (63.4-67.6)   (53.3-57.4)   (6.0-8.1)   (11.0-13.8)
  Working   49.8   65.2   54.7   8.3   14.2*
  (48.3-51.4)   (63.7-66.7)   (53.3-56.2)   (7.4-9.2)   (13.1-15.3)
Age           
  15-24 (reference)   49.4   66.2   47.3   5.8   13.2
  (44.9-53.8)   (61.8-70.6)   (43.1-51.5)   (6.8-8.5)   (10.3-16.0)
  25-34   50.1   65.5   54.8**   7.2   14.2
  (47.7-52.4)   (63.3-67.7)   (52.5-57.2)   (6.1-8.3)   (12.6-15.7)
  35-44   47.1   64.5   57.4**   8.6   13.0
  (44.4-49.8)   (62.0-67.1)   (54.7-60.1)   (7.1-10.1)   (11.1-14.9)
  45-49   51.5   65.4   59.8**   11.3*   13.9
  (46.8-56.2)   (61.2-69.7)   (55.1-64.4)   (8.2-14.5)   (10.4-17.3)
Marital status           
  Married (reference)   49.6   65.3   54.6   7.7   13.3
  (48.0-51.3)   (63.5-67.1)   (43.0-56.2)   (6.8-8.5)   (12.2-14.5)
  Cohabiting   48.4   65.3   54.7   8.1   13.9
  (46.3-50.4)   (63.1-67.5)   (54.5-57.5)   (6.9-9.4)   (12.4-15.4)
Partner’s age           
  14-24 (reference)   50.5   67.2   54.8   9.7   18.8
  (44.9-56.2)   (62.0-72.4)   (49.6-60.0)   (6.2-13.3)   (13.8-23.9)
  25-34   49.5   65.3   53.0   8.2   13.7*
  (46.8-52.2)   (62.9-67.8)   (50.2-55.8)   (6.5-9.9)   (11.8-15.6)
  35-44   47.4   64.2   55.5   8.0   12.5*
  (47.1-52.0)   (62.0-66.4)   (53.3-57.7)   (6.9-9.1)   (10.9-14.0)
  45+   47.4   66.1   57.3   6.8   12.7
  (43.4-51.5)   (62.2-69.9)   (53.4-61.2)   (5.1-8.5)   (10.1-15.3)
Partner’s age, relative to respondent           
  Same age or younger (ref.)   50.3   65.9   57.2   6.8   14.3
  (47.7-52.9)   (63.4-68.4)   (54.8-59.6)   (5.6-8.0)   (12.6-16.0)
  1-5 years older   49.5   65.9   53.7*   7.7   12.8
  (47.6-51.4)   (64.0-67.7)   (51.9-55.4)   (6.7-8.7)   (11.6-14.0)
  6+ years older   47.4   63.7   54.6   9.4*   14.0
  (44.7-50.1)   (61.2-66.3)   (51.7-57.5)   (7.7-11.0)   (12.1-16.0)
Partner’s education           
  None (reference)   47.9   63.7   53.2   7.0   16.9
  (38.8-57.0)   (54.7-72.7)   (43.9-62.4)   (1.8-12.2)   (8.3-25.6)
  Primary   50.1   65.7   55.4   8.7   14.7
  (47.6-52.7)   (63.5-67.8)   (53.0-57.8)   (7.4-10.0)   (13.0-16.4)
  Secondary   50.7   66.5   55.1   7.0   12.7
  (48.5-52.8)   (64.3-68.8)   (53.0-57.1)   (6.0-8.1)   (11.1-14.3)
  Higher   43.8   62.3   53.8   7.0   12.3
  (39.5-48.1)   (58.6-66.1)   (49.7-58.0)   (5.0-9.1)   (9.4-15.1)
Partner’s education compared to respondent           
  Wife is more educated (reference)   47.9   63.6   55.2   7.5   12.2
  (44.9-50.9)   (60.9-66.4)   (52.4-58.0)   (5.9-9.0)   (10.3-14.1)
  Same level of education   46.9   63.5   54.6   6.7   13.8
  (44.4-49.4)   (61.0-65.9)   (52.1-57.0)   (5.4-8.0)   (12.0-15.5)
  Husband is more educated   50.6   66.8   55.0   8.4   14.1
   (48.7-52.6)   (65.0-68.6)   (53.1-56.9)   (7.3-9.5)   (12.7-15.4)
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001.
  2. Ψ Respondents who experienced sexual abuse may also have experienced psychological and/or physical abuse.