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Table 1 Distribution of serum vitamin D quartiles in relation to reproductive history, life-style factors and season

From: Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH

Factor Serum vitamin D quartile [nmol/L]
1 [18–69] 2 [70–86] 3 [87–104] 4 [105–173] All
n = 179 n = 187 n = 177 n = 184 n = 727
Column percent*; mean (SD) in italics
Age (years) 56.2 (7.3) 56.2 (7.9) 58.1 (7.2) 57.2 (7.2) 56.9 (7.2)
 ≤50 27.9 23.5 18.1 19.6 22.3
 >50 – ≤55 22.3 23.0 18.6 26.1 22.6
 >55 – ≤60 19.0 20.3 21.5 16.8 19.4
 >60 – ≤65 17.9 21.9 20.9 19.6 20.1
 >65 12.8 11.2 20.9 17.9 15.7
BMI (kg/m2) 26.7 (4.96) 25.5 (4.5) 25.1 (3.4) 24.6 (3.4) 25.5 (4.2)
 <20 5.0 6.4 4.5 6.5 5.6
 ≥20 – <25 39.1 44.9 48.6 52.2 46.2
 ≥25 – <30 34.6 34.2 40.1 33.7 35.6
 ≥30 21.2 14.4 6.8 7.6 12.5
Oral contraception
 No 52.5 52.9 51.4 44.6 50.3
 Yes 47.5 47.1 48.6 55.4 49.7
Menopausal status
 Pre 30.7 26.7 21.5 23.9 25.7
 Peri/post 69.3 73.3 78.5 76.1 74.3
MHT** (n = 537)
 No 77.4 86.1 72.7 76.4 78.1
 Yes 21.0 13.9 26.6 23.6 21.3
Smoking status
 Never 40.8 43.3 42.9 41.3 42.1
 Current 29.6 24.1 29.4 27.7 27.6
 Ex 29.6 32.6 27.7 31.0 30.3
Alcohol consumption
 Zero 11.7 6.4 7.9 5.4 7.8
 <15 g/day 58.7 68.4 61.6 62.5 62.9
 15 – 30 g/day 12.8 11.2 16.9 14.1 13.8
 >30 g/day 3.9 1.1 2.8 3.3 2.8
 Infrequent 12.8 12.8 10.7 14.7 12.8
Baseline season
 Spring 43.6 25.1 27.1 14.1 27.4
 Summer 14.5 22.5 31.1 43..5 27.9
 Autumn 15.6 22.5 20.3 23.4 20.5
 Winter 26.3 29.9 21.5 19.0 24.2
Education
 O-level college 67.0 66.3 67.8 71.7 68.2
 A-level college 10.1 7.0 7.9 6.5 7.8
 University 22.9 26.7 24.3 21.7 23.9
Socio-economic index
 Manual 39.1 35.8 35.6 40.2 37.7
 Non-manual 53.1 51.3 59.9 53.8 54.5
 Employer 7.3 12.8 4.5 6.0 7.7
Born in Sweden
 Yes 83.2 91.4 93.8 92.9 90.4
 No 16.8 8.6 6.2 7.1 9.6
  1. * Due to missing values, percentages do not always add up to 100%. ** Only in peri/postmenopausal.