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Table 3 Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for high (> 75 nmol/L) vs . low (≤75 nmol/L) vitamin D levels, and regression coefficients (βi) from multiple regression analysis, in relation to reproductive history, life–styles factors and season

From: Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH

Factor Low (n) High (n) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted*OR (95% CI) βi (95% CI) Adjusted* βi (95% CI)
Age (years)
 ≤50 59 103 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 >50 – ≤55 53 111 1.20 (0.76–1.90) 1.18 (0.73–1.92) 4.13 (–1.78 to 10.0) 4.10 (–1.73 to 9.94)
 >55 – ≤60 49 92 1.08 (0.67–1.72) 0.99 (0.60–1.64) 3.31 (–2.83 to 9.46) 2.25 (–3.84 to 8.33)
 >60 – ≤65 42 104 1.42 (0.88–2.29) 1.49 (0.89–2.49) 4.12 (–1.97 to 10.2) 5.05 (–1.02 to 11.1)
 >65 31 83 1.53 (0.91–2.59) 1.44 (0.84–2.48) 9.14 (2.61 to 15.7) 8.03 (1.73 to 14.3)
BMI (kg/m2)
 <20 12 29 0.80 (0.45–1.86) 0.97 (0.46–2.04) 1.12 (–3.25 to 5.50) 1.47 (–2.73 to 5.68)
 ≥20– <25 92 244 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 ≥25– <30 82 177 0.26 (0.57–1.16) 0.79 (0.55–1.14) −1.55 (–3.74 to 0.63) −1.73 (–3.84 to 0.39)
 ≥30 48 43 0.34 (0.21–0.54) 0.31 (0.19–0.52) −6.84 (–9.97 to –3.72) −6.98 (–10.0 to –3.94)
Oral contraception
 No 126 240 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Yes 108 253 1.23 (0.90–1.68) 1.49 (1.04–2.13) 2.84 (–1.13 to 6.80) 5.40 (1.17 to 9.62)
Menopausal status
 Pre 67 120 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Peri/post 167 373 1.25 (0.88–1.77) 1.22 (0.70–2.12) 4.42 (–0.12 to 8.95) 3.62 (–3.10 to 10.3)
MHT** (n = 537)
 No 135 287 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Yes 30 85 1.33 (0.84–2.12) 1.37 (0.85–2.23) −1.52 (–4.53 to 1.48) −1.55 (–4.50 to 1.40)
Smoking status
 Never 97 209 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Ex 66 135 0.95 (0.65–1.39) 1.06 (0.71–1.58) −0.58 (–5.44 to 4.28) 0.85 (–3.91 to 5.62)
 Current 71 149 0.97 (0.67–1.41) 1.03 (0.70–1.52) 1.81 (–2.93 to 6.54) 2.42 (–2.18 to 7.03)
Alcohol consumption
 Zero 25 32 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 <15 g/day 311 315 1.73 (0.99–3.03) 1.92 (1.07–3.45) 8.60 (1.10 to 16.1) 9.31 (2.05 to 16.6)
 15 – 30 g/day 30 70 1.82 (0.93–3.58) 2.16 (1.06–4.41) 9.20 (0.34 to 18.1) 10.7 (2.03 to 19.3)
 >30 g/day 8 12 1.17 (0.42–3.30) 1.44 (0.48–4.33) 2.38 (–11.5 to 16.3) 4.51 (–9.01 to 18.0)
 Infrequent 29 64 1.72 (0.87–3.41) 2.01 (0.99–4.08) 9.41 (0.42 to 18.4) 10.9 (2.21 to 19.5)
Baseline season
 Spring 95 104 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Summer 39 164 3.84 (2.46–6.00) 3.89 (2.48–6.12) 20.3 (15.2 to 25.5) 20.1 (14.9 to 25.2)
 Autumn 39 110 2.58 (1.63–4.08) 2.52 (1.59–4.00) 11.0 (5.45 to 16.6) 10.5 (4.94 to 16.1)
 Winter  61 115 1.72 (1.14–2.61) 1.71 (1.12–2.60) 7.04 (1.72 to 12.4) 6.80 (1.47 to 12.1)
Education
 O–level college 158 338 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 A–level college 23 34 0.69 (0.39–1.21) 0.70 (0.39–1.27) −5.87 (–13.3 to 1.61) −5.63 (–12.9 to 1.62)
 University  53 121 1.07 (0.73–1.55) 1.17 (0.78–1.74) −2.31 (–7.02 to 2.40) −1.10 (–5.77 to 3.57)
Socio–economic index
 Manual 93 181 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 Non–manual 120 276 1.18 (0.85–1.64) 1.24 (0.88–1.75) −0.37 (–4.57 to 3.83) 0.20 (–3.87 to 4.27)
 Employer 20 36 0.93 (0.51–1.69) 0.88 (0.47–1.65) −4.91 (–12.7 to 2.94) −4.97 (–12.6 to 2.62)
Born in Sweden
 Yes 200 457 1.00 1.00 Baseline Baseline
 No 34 36 0.46 (0.28–0.76) 0.44 (0.26–0.74) −10.6 (–17.3 to –3.96) −10.5 (–16.9 to –4.08)
  1. * Adjusted for age, season and time in freezer. ** Only in peri/postmenopausal.