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Table 4 Stigmatization (ACEDSS)

From: Mental health of victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo: associations with daily stressors, stigma, and labeling

  Total (n = 1,304) NSV (n = 796) Rape (n = 180) NCS (n = 311) OR Rape/NSV OR NCS/NSV OR Rape/NCS χ 2 /F
Corporal punishment by family member 321 (24.3%) 79 (9.9%) 104 (56.8%) 132 (42.3%) 12.03** 6.70** 1.80* 251.00**
Hear that people say bad things about you or your family 577 (43.9%) 294 (36.8%) 113 (62.8%) 156 (50.0%) 2.90** 1.72** 1.69* 47.16**
You are treated worse than other people 326 (25.1%) 122 (15.4%) 109 (60.9%) 87 (28.2%) 8.55** 2.16** 3.96** 164.21**
You are treated with less respect than other people 370 (28.4%) 145 (18.2%) 104 (58.1%) 115 (37.3%) 6.22** 2.67** 2.33** 130.14**
You are treated badly by a family member 292 (22.3%) 102 (12.8%) 94 (51.6%) 88 (28.5%) 7.28** 2.71** 2.68** 139.89**
Rejected/abandoned by your (close) family 174 (13.3%) 44 (5.5%) 52 (28.7%) 73 (23.7%) 6.92** 5.35** 1.29 113.00**
Rejected/abandoned by your community 194 (14.8%) 44 (5.5%) 90 (49.5%) 57 (18.6%) 16.87** 3.93** 4.29** 232.29**
Treated as if people are scared of you 237 (18.1%) 63 (7.9%) 94 (52.2%) 75 (24.5%) 12.79** 3.80** 3.37** 206.81**
Threatened by others 428 (32.7%) 203 (25.5%) 99 (54.7%) 116 (37.7%) 3.53** 1.78** 1.98** 68.84**
Called dishonest 299 (22.8%) 107 (13.4%) 97 (53.6%) 91 (29.4%) 7.48** 3.73** 2.74** 149.25**
People act as if they’re better than you 612 (46.6%) 323 (40.5%) 120 (67.0%) 155 (49.7%) 2.99** 1.45 2.06** 43.27**
People act as if they’re smarter than you 584 (44.9%) 301 (38.1%) 112 (62.9%) 157 (51.0%) 2.75** 1.68** 1.63 43.37**
You receive poorer service than other people at stores/services 311 (23.8%) 147 (18.6% 71 (39.2%) 85 (27.6%) 2.83 1.67** 1.69* 38.34**
You are insulted 583 (44.5%) 299 (37.6%) 119 (65.7%) 155 (49.7%) 3.18 1.64** 1.94* 51.75**
Total stigmatization (mean, SD) 3.95 (3.45) 2.82 (2.50) 7.53 (4.28) 4.90 (3.37) 4.78 2.21** 2.63** 200.33**
  1. N(%); *p < .01, **p < .001; OR: odds ratio, NSV: no sexual violence, NCS: Non-consensual sexual experience.