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Table 2 Statements and factor scores

From: Women’s perspectives of female genital cutting: Q-methodology

# Statement Factor
1 2 3 4
1 There are necessary laws against FGC in Kurdistan 0 0 -1 3**
2 Women with FGC are less likely to catch sexually transmitted infections -2 -2 0** -4*
3 FGC improves fertility -4 -1** -2* -4
4* One is not a proper woman until she undergo FGC -4 -4 -3 -3
5 The removal of the clitoris promotes cleanliness -3 -1 -1 -3
6 People who subject their daughters to FGC should be prosecuted 1 2 4* 2
7 I am not in favor of FGC and think this practice should stop 0** 2 4 4
8 I haven’t seen any religious book that prescribes FGC 1* 2 3 4
9 Males prefer females who have undergone FGC -1 1 0 0
10 The decision to get girls to undergo FGC is usually taken by grandmother 1* -2** 3 3
11 I think FGC will soon be history among Kurdish 3* 0 0 1
12* Without FGC a woman is unable to fulfill her intended role in marriage -2 -2 -3 -3
13 If someone in Kurdistan doesn’t perform FGC to their daughter, it may become an embarrassment to the entire family 3** -1 -1 -2
14 Women being cut is prestigious in Kurdistan 1** -4 -3 -2
15 The majority of Kurds don’t support FGC, but the surrounding environment is pushing them to subject their daughters to FGC 3 0 0 1
16 In Kurdistan, the majority of girls have not undergone FGC -2 3** -1 1*
17 FGC practitioners should be prosecuted -3** 3 3 2
18** I think that the majority of the people I know are against FGC 4 4 2 3
19 Many people in Kurdistan do not subject their daughters to FGC only because they are scared of the law -1 -1 1* -2
20 FGC should be voluntary and each family should decide if they want to perform FGC or not 0* 2 2 -2*
21 The girls without FGC are healthier -2 0 0 2**
22 Sometimes, health provider perform FGC for the sake of doing well for the woman 0 0 2** 1
23** FGC is a form of discrimination against girls and women 2 1 1 0
24 FGC ensures a girl’s virginity 0* -2 -2 -2
25 FGC is a positive cultural aspect and is an essential part of our culture 2** -3 -2 -1*
26** FGC makes a girl more beautiful -1 0 0 0
27* FGC prevents promiscuity in girls -2 -2 -1 0
28 FGC is a religious obligation 0* -3 -2 -1
29 FGC in its mild form (cutting only the clitoris) does not lead to any complications; it is therefore acceptable 2 0 1 -1
30 FGC is a violation of human rights 1 3* 2 0
31 I would object if family members intended to subject their daughters to FGC 2 4* 1 -1*
32 FGC can cause psychosocial complications 4** 1 1 1
33** For physicians or nurses, performing FGC violates their professional ethics 2 1 1 2
34 FGC can cause long-term complications 0 2 -1 2
35 If the clitoris is not removed, a woman cannot please a man -1 -3** 0 -1
36** FGC can lead to serious complications 1 1 2 0
37 FGC is usually carried out by health professionals -3 1 -2 0
38 Father has an important role on deciding to perform FGC on the girls -1 -1 -4** 1
39 Woman without FGC does not have clean hands -1 -1 -4** -1
  1. *Distinguishing statement significant at <0.05.
  2. **Distinguishing statement significant at <0.01.
  3. Bold type indicates consensus statement.