Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected characteristics of the study population for the whole sample and stratified for carotid plaques in the common carotid artery

From: Reproductive factors, intima media thickness and carotid plaques in a cross-sectional study of postmenopausal women enrolled in the population-based KORA F4 study

  Whole study population No plaque Plaque p-values
n 800 498 302  
Age (years) 64.2 (8.2) 62.0 (7.6) 67.9 (8.0) <0.0001
IMT (mm) 0.895 (0.124) 0.856 (0.109) 0.961 (0.119) <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm) 91.4 (12.5) 90.7 (12.9) 92.5 (11.8) 0.051
BMI (kg/m2) 28.4 (5.1) 28.2 (5.2) 28.7 (4.9) 0.143
BMI at age 25 years (kg/m2) 22.5 (3.3) 22.4 (3.4) 22.7 (3.2) 0.300
Family status (%)     0.075
Single 5.3 4.8 6.5  
Married 66.8 69.4 61.6  
Divorced or widowed 28.0 25.8 32.0  
Education < 10 years (%) 62.3 57.2 70.1 0.0003
Systolic BP (mmHg) 121.6 (18.1) 120.6 (16.6) 125.0 (19.8) 0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.6 (9.2) 74.5 (8.8) 72.5 (9.7) 0.003
History of diabetes (%)1 13.2 11.2 16.7 0.029
Actual hypertension (%)2 44.8 40.7 55.8 <0.0001
Current use of antihypertensive medication (%) 41.1 33.5 53.7 <0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 230.6 (38.5) 62.6 (14.6) 61.0 (14.8) 0.951
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 98.7 (17.3) 97.5 (15.3) 100.8 (20.0) 0.010
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 121.3 (73.9) 119.0 (77.4) 125.2 (66.8) 0.251
Alcohol > 20 g/day (%) 16.0 16.1 15.0 0.079
Current smoking (%) 10.9 11.2 10.9 0.844
Physically active (%) 56.0 60.1 48.0 0.001
Menarche (years) 13.6 (1.7) 13.6 (1.6) 13.8 (1.8) 0.104
Parity (%)     0.195
0 11.8 10.3 14.6  
1-2 48.1 49.8 44.9  
>2 40.2 39.9 40.5  
Age at menopause (years)3 49.0 (5.0) 48.7 (5.1) 49.3 (4.8) 0.143
Time since menopause (years)3 15.8 (9.0) 13.8 (8.6) 18.9 (8.7) <0.0001
Duration of Fertility (years)3 35.3 (5.1) 35.1 (5.2) 35.5 (5.0) 0.322
Current HRT (%) 14.4 16.9 10.5 0.010
Ever HRT (%) 59.0 64.0 50.3 <0.0001
Ever OC (%) 61.6 66.7 54.8 0.0005
Hysterectomy (%) 33.8 34.7 32.0 0.286
Bilateral oophorectomy (%) 6.8 7.0 6.5 0.687
Hot flashes (%) 43.2 48.3 34.7 <0.0001
Depressive mood (%) 37.1 35.7 37.8 0.695
  1. Data presented as mean (standard deviation) or percentage respectively.
  2. Abbreviations: BMI: Body Mass Index, BP: Blood pressure, HRT: Hormone replacement therapy, OC: oral contraceptives.
  3. p-values are presented for the difference of present and absent plaques.
  4. 1 missing information for 13 women.
  5. 2 actual hypertension was defined as current use of blood pressure lowering medication or a blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, given that the subjects were aware of being hypertensive.
  6. 3 n = 602, due to missing values of age at menopause.