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Table 1 Rate (%) of attending any postnatal care and immediate postnatal care visits by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Nepal 2011 (N = 4079)

From: Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011

Factor Total Attended postnatal care Attended immediate postnatal care
  N (%) n (%)# n (%)#
Proximate factors    
Mother’s age (in years)   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
15-19 306 (7.5) 161 (51.6) 153 (48.9)
20-29 2608 (63.9) 1227 (46.0) 1164 (43.8)
30-34 661 (16.2) 270 (39.9) 259 (38.2)
> = 35 504 (12.4) 130 (7.7) 118 (24.3)
Number of ANC visits   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
No ANC visit 611 (15.0) 65 (11.5) 59 (10.4)
1-3 1317 (32.3) 383 (27.9) 355 (25.9)
4 or more 2151 (52.7) 1340 (63.3) 1280(60.6)
Timing of ANC   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Late ANC (4–9 months) 2018 (49.5) 607 (30.0) 509 (35.7)
Early ANC (<=3 months) 2061 (50.5) 1181(56.5) 1126 (53.9)
Place of delivery   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Home 2464 (60.4) 339 (14.3) 281 (11.7)
Health facility 1615 (39.6) 1449 (89.2) 1413 (87.6)
Attendance during delivery   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Unskilled attendance 2236 (54.8) 208 (9.8) 155 (7.2)
Skilled attendance 1843 (45.2) 1580 (83.9) 1539 (82.2)
Maternal final say on her own health care   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Women with partner/other 1522 (37.7) 737 (47.7) 707 (45.7)
Women alone 917 (22.7) 419 (44.7) 402 (43.0)
Partner alone/someone else 1594 (39.5) 616 (38.2) 571 (35.5)
Birth order   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
First 1248 (30.6) 770 (61.8) 733 (59.7)
Second or third 1847 (45.3) 802 (41.2) 758 (38.4)
Fourth or more 948 (24.1) 216 (21.6) 203 (20.3)
Sex of child   P = 0.209 P = 0.305
Male 2192 (53.7) 946 (42.0) 902 (39.9)
Female 1887 (46.3) 842 (44.5) 792 (42.0)
Sociodemographic factors    
Wealth status   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Poor (Lower 40%) 1992 (48.8) 493 (23.8) 458 (22.2)
Middle (Middle 40%) 1416 (34.7) 756 (50.6) 723 (48.0)
Rich (Upper 20%) 671 (16.5) 539 (80.7) 213 (77.4)
Ethnicity   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Advantaged 1955 (47.9) 971 (51.4) 921 (48.9)
Disadvantaged (Janjati) 1410 (34.6) 549 (37.4) 515 (35.2)
Disadvantaged (Dalit) 714 (17.5) 268 (35.0) 258 (33.5)
Religion   P = 0.008* P = 0.014*
Hindu 3480 (85.3) 1575 (44.9) 1491 (42.5)
Others 599 (14.7) 213 (34.8) 203 (33.3)
Maternal education   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
No education 1765 (43.3) 449 (26.6) 418 (24.7)
Primary 817 (20.0) 341 (39.8) 322 (37.8)
Secondary 1225 (30.0) 760 (61.0) 728 (58.7)
Higher 272 (6.7) 238 (85.5) 226 (80.8)
Maternal occupation   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Not working 965 (23.7) 603 (59.5) 571 (56.6)
Agriculture 2502 (61.3) 797 (31.0) 757 (29.4)
Working (paid) 612 (15.0) 388 (61.3) 366 (57.8)
Paternal education   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
No education 761 (18.7) 176 (24.2) 161 (22.3)
Primary 989 (24.2) 313 (32.3) 297 (30.2)
Secondary 1815 (44.5) 921 (50.4) 879 (48.1)
Higher 514 (12.6) 378 (74.7) 357 (71.8)
Paternal occupation   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Agriculture 978 (24.0) 253 (26.0) 237 (24.4)
Professional/technical 1715 (42.0) 1012 (58.3) 961 (55.5)
Manual and others 1386 (34.0) 523 (37.4) 496 (35.5)
Community factors    
Place of residence   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Urban 897 (22.0) 610 (71.8) 579 (68.2)
Rural 3182 (78.0) 1178 (39.9) 1115 (37.9)
Development region   P = 0.692 P = 0.725
Eastern 958 (23.5) 405 (46.0) 375 (42.9)
Central 854 (20.9) 381 (42.7) 364 (40.6)
Western 643 (15.8) 333 (44.4) 322 (43.1)
Mid -western 896 (22.0) 359 (38.5) 342 (36.5)
Far-western 728 (17.8) 310 (42.4) 291 (39.2)
Ecological region   P < 0.001* P < 0.001*
Mountain 742 (18.2) 208 (26.7) 195 (24.9)
Hill 1656 (40.6) 663 (37.6) 628 (35.8)
Terai 1681 (41.2) 917 (49.8) 871 (47.1)
  1. #The number of missing values may vary for each variable. The percentages presented are valid percentages. #The percentage in PNC and Immediate PNC is adjusted for sample weight, multi-staging and cluster weight. Therefore, the percentage may not be equal to simple unweighted count. P = Chi-square p –value; ANC: Antenatal care; PNC: Postnatal care *reflects statistically significant association in Chi-square test.