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Table 3 Factors associated with attending immediate postnatal care among Nepalese women, Demographic and Health Survey 2011

From: Factors associated with the utilisation of postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011

Factor Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Community factors     
Place of residence P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.006 P = 0.227
Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Urban 3.511 (2.714-4.511) 3.539 (2.725-4.739) 1.464 (1.116-1.921) 0.777 (0.515-1.171)
Ecological region P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.026 P = 0.086
Mountain 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hill 1.682 (1.114-2.539) 1.461 (0.960-2.223) 1.047 (0.723-1.517) 0.939 (0.668-1.321)
Terai 2.684 (1.828-3.941) 2.474 (1.680-3.647) 1.473 (1.001-2.171) 1.313 (0.921-1.873)
Sociodemographic factors     
Wealth status P < 0.001   P < 0.001 P = 0.001
Poor (Lower 40%) 1.00   1.00 1.00
Middle (Middle 40%) 2.543 (2.009-3.219)   1.663 (1.272-2.174) 1.670 (1.111-2.512)
Rich (Upper 20%) 6.609 (5.143-8.843)   3.068 (2.106-4.470) 3.693 (2.319-5.880)
Ethnicity P < 0.001   P = 0.0519 Not in model
Advantaged 1.00   1.00  
Disadvantaged (Janjati) 0.566 (0.443-0.723)   0.888 (0.677-1.166)  
Disadvantaged (Dalit) 0.526 (0.420-0.657)   1.076 (0.832-1.392)  
Religion P = 0.014   P = 0.350 Not in model
Hindu 1.477 (1.081-2.017)   1.167 (0.844-1.613)  
Others 1.00   1.00  
Maternal education P < 0.001   P < 0.001 P = 0.502
No education 1.00   1.00 1.00
Primary 1.852 (1.477-2.323)   1.483 (1.193-1.843) 1.141 (0.825-1.576)
Secondary 4.333 (3.436-5.464)   2.287 (1.789-2.923) 1.189 (0.849-1.665)
Higher 12.824 (8.404-19.567)   3.657(2.273-5.882) 1.563 (0.819-2.982)
Maternal occupation P < 0.001   P < 0.002 P = 0.396
Not working 1.00   1.00 1.000
Agriculture 0.318 (0.252-0.402)   0.644 (0.506-0.819) 0.936 (0.661-1.326)
Working (paid) 1.049 (0.784-1.403)   0.776 (0.586-1.027) 0.730 (0.458-1.164)
Paternal education P < 0.001   P = 0.036 P = 0.781
No education 1.00   1.00 1.00
Primary 1.509 (1.101-2.069)   1.272 (0.953-1.699) 1.044 (0.717-1.520)
Secondary 3.229 (2.390-4.363)   1.521 (1.134-2.038) 1.150 (0.812-1.628)
Higher 8.854 (5.886-13.321)   1.817 (1.123-2.939) 1.293 (0.963-2.403)
Paternal occupation P < 0.001   P < 0.001 P = 0.890
Agriculture 1.00   1.00 1.00
Professional/technical 3.856 (3.039-4.892)   1.677 (1.302-2.160) 1.070 (0.812-1.411)
Manual and others 1.699 (1.343-2.150)   1.396 (1.101-1.769) 1.062 (0.553-2.040)
Proximate factors     
Mother’s age (in years) P < 0.001    P = 0.350
15-19 1.00    1.00
20-29 0.816 (0.619-1.077)    1.426 (0.941-2.161)
30-34 0.646 (0.472-0.884)    1.568 (0.925-2.658)
> = 35 0.335 (0.239-0.471)    1.399 (0.883-2.217)
Number of ANC visits P < 0.001    P < 0.001
No ANC visit 1.00    1.00
1-3 3.019 (1.934-4.712)    1.670 (1.111-2.512)
4 or more 13.325 (8.274-21.457)    3.693 (2.319-5.880)
Place of delivery P < 0.001    P < 0.001
Home 1.00    1.00
Health facility 52.920 (38.559-72.630)    34.894 (24.956-48.789)
Maternal final say on her own health care P < 0.001    P = 0.665
Women alone 1.00    1.00
Women with partner/other 1.114 (0.898-1.381)    1.082 (0.783-1.495)
Partner alone/someone else 0.729 (0.575-0.923)    0.940 (0.961-1.278)
  1. Valid cases N = 4079; Cox and Snell Pseudo R Squares = 0.480; Model 1: Place of residence and ecological region. Model 2: place of residence, region, ethnicity, religion, maternal education, maternal occupation, paternal education and paternal occupation. Model 3: place of residence, region, ethnicity, religion, maternal education, maternal occupation, paternal education and paternal occupation, maternal age, number of antenatal visits, place of delivery, maternal autonomy for her own health. P = p- value. 1.00 = reference group. OR = Odd ratio. 95% CI = 95% Confidence interval. ANC: Antenatal care. All values are weighted for the sampling weight, cluster weight and multi stage sampling.