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Table 3 Odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome and individual menstrual symptoms, stratified by timing of 25OHD measurement vs. PMS diagnosis

From: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of premenstrual syndrome in a prospective cohort study

  25OHD measured before PMS diagnosis 25OHD measured after PMS diagnosis
Outcome Cases* MV OR† (95% CI) for 10 nmol/L change in 25OHD Cases* MV OR† (95% CI) for 10 nmol/L change in 25OHD
Premenstrual Syndrome 123 0.97 (0.85 – 1.11) 279 1.13 (1.03 – 1.25)
Physical & behavioral menstrual symptoms   
Swelling of extremities 27 0.77 (0.57 – 1.06) 58 1.12 (0.96 – 1.31)
Breast tenderness 79 0.79 (0.65 – 0.96) 211 1.05 (0.93 – 1.19)
Fatigue 64 0.80 (0.66 – 0.97) 153 1.10 (0.99 – 1.23)
Diarrhea/constipation 50 0.80 (0.65 – 0.98) 108 1.13 (1.00 – 1.29)
Backache 41 0.85 (0.67 – 1.07) 104 1.11 (0.98 – 1.26)
Bloating 77 0.85 (0.71 – 1.03) 181 1.10 (0.99 – 1.23)
Hot flashes 16 0.86 (0.59 – 1.25) 15 1.09 (0.79 – 1.52)
Palpitations 15 0.90 (0.62 – 1.32) 22 1.14 (0.90 – 1.45)
Food cravings 82 0.92 (0.78 – 1.09) 204 1.15 (1.03 – 1.29)
Appetite changes 68 0.93 (0.79 – 1.10) 163 1.17 (1.04 – 1.31)
Forgetfulness 24 0.96 (0.72 – 1.28) 58 1.15 (0.99 – 1.34)
Insomnia 33 0.95 (0.76 – 1.20) 47 1.15 (0.97 – 1.36)
Acne 36 0.97 (0.76 – 1.24) 96 1.14 (1.01 – 1.29)
Headache 58 1.02 (0.85 – 1.23) 125 1.07 (0.95 – 1.22)
Affective menstrual symptoms    
Depression 51 0.81 (0.66 – 1.00) 117 1.10 (0.98 – 1.24)
Anxiety 35 0.82 (0.63 – 1.06) 91 1.19 (1.04 – 1.35)
Tendency to cry easily 59 0.92 (0.76 – 1.12) 158 1.13 (1.01 – 1.27)
Anger 68 0.94 (0.78 – 1.13) 165 1.12 (1.01 – 1.25)
Irritability 110 0.95 (0.81 – 1.11) 235 1.19 (1.07 – 1.34)
Hypersensitivity 37 0.95 (0.76 – 1.19) 112 1.14 (1.01 – 1.29)
Cramping 46 0.98 (0.80 – 1.20) 92 1.03 (0.90 – 1.19)
Mood swings 76 1.00 (0.85 – 1.17) 191 1.15 (1.04 – 1.28)
Desire for aloneness 38 1.01 (0.80 – 1.28) 113 1.14 (1.00 – 1.29)
  1. Odds ratios (OR) correspond to change in risk of PMS or individual symptoms for each 10 nmol/L change in 25OHD level. OR significant at P < 0.05 are bolded.
  2. *Number of PMS cases reporting specific symptom. Results for symptoms of dizziness, nausea, confusion are not shown, as these symptoms were reported by ≤10 cases.
  3. †Multivariable (MV) OR from unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, season of blood collection, race/ethnicity, geographic region, BMI at blood draw, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status at blood collection, number of moles on leg, oral contraceptive use, maternal education, antidepressant use, significant childhood trauma, and vitamin B6 intake, and plasma levels of total calcium and parathyroid hormone.