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Table 1 Demographic and obstetric characteristics of study participants

From: Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the First Baby Study: a longitudinal cohort study

  Total No history of miscarriage History of miscarriage p-value
N = 2798 N = 2349 N = 449
Maternal age 27.6 ± 4.3 27.1 ± 4.3 28.1 ± 4.3 <0.001***
Marital status      0.065
 Married 2012 (71.9) 1673 (71.2) 339 (75.5)  
 Not married 786 (28.1) 676 (28.8) 110 (24.5)  
Fertility advice or treatment       <0.001***
 No 2480 (88.6) 2122 (90.3) 358 (79.7)  
 Yes 318 (11.4) 227 (9.7) 91 (20.3)  
Race/Ethnicity       0.442
 Non-Hispanic White 2370 (84.7) 1986 (84.5) 384 (85.5)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 182 (6.5) 149 (6.3) 33 (7.3)  
 Hispanic 144 (5.1) 127 (5.4) 17 (3.8)  
 Other 102 (3.6) 87 (3.7) 15 (3.3)  
Education       0.828
 High school graduate or GED or less 459 (16.4) 382 (16.3) 77 (17.1)  
 Some college or vocational programs 725 (25.9) 613 (26.1) 112 (24.9)  
 Completed 4 year college degree or greater 1614 (57.7) 1354 (57.6) 260 (57.9)  
Poverty       0.896
 Poverty 230 (8.2) 192 (8.2) 38 (8.5)  
 Near poverty 309 (11.0) 257 (10.9) 52 (11.6)  
 Non-poverty 2259 (80.7) 1900 (80.9) 359 (80.0)  
Mode of delivery       0.115
 Vaginal delivery 1981 (70.8) 1677 (71.4) 304 (67.7)  
 Cesarean delivery 817 (29.2) 672 (28.6) 145 (32.3)  
Infant hospitalization at birth       0.089
 No 2730 (97.6) 2297 (97.8) 433 (96.4)  
 Yes 68 (2.4) 52 (2.2) 16 (3.6)  
Postpartum mental health visits       0.225
 No 2667 (95.3) 2244 (95.5) 423 (94.2)  
 Yes 131 (4.7) 105 (4.7) 26 (5.8)  
History of depression       0.132
 No 2158 (77.1) 1824 (77.7) 334 (74.4)  
 Yes 640 (22.9) 525 (22.3) 115 (25.6)  
Probable postpartum depression       0.041*
 No probable depression 2695 (96.3) 2270 (96.6) 425 (94.7)  
 Probable depression 103 (3.7) 79 (3.4) 24 (5.3)  
Postpartum bonding score (S-PBQ) 47.7 ± 2.6 47.7 ± 2.6 47.5 ± 2.7 0.261
Birth experience 68.7 ± 6.4 68.7 ± 6.4 68.5 ± 6.4 0.523
Maternal stress 15.5 ± 3.3 15.5 ± 3.3 15.5±3.4 0.780
Social support 38.9 ± 5.7 38.9 ± 5.6 38.7 ± 5.7 0.501
  1. All results reported as n (%) or mean ± SD.
  2. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.