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Table 1 Summary of all studies with interventions, level of evidence, quality rating score and age

From: Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

Studies Intervention Hierarchy of Evidence a Quality Rating Score (%) Mean age (SD)b
Bo (1999) PFMT v BF v ES v control II 23/23 (100) 49.6 (10)
Morkved (2002) PFMT v PFMT+BF II 22/23 (96) 47.8 (8.2)
Dumoulin (2004) PFMT+ES+BF v PFMT+ES+BF+Ab Ex v control II 21/23 (91) 36.2 (median) (IQ range 23–39)
Bo (2000) PFMT II 21/23 (91) 49.6 (10)
Berghmans (1996) PFMT v PFMT+BF II 20/23 (87) 48 (range 18–70)
Knight (1998) PFMT+BF v PFMT+BF+ES('home') v PFMT+BF+ES('clinic') II 17/23 (74) NR (range 24–68)
Miller (1998b) PFMT (motor learning) II 17/23 (74) 68.4 (range 60–84)
Parkkinen (2004) PFMT+ES+BF+VW v PFMT+VW III-2 14/19 (74) 46.8 (range 32–65)
Wong (2001) PFMT+BF v PFMT+BF+Ab BF II 16/23 (70) 46 (range 30–62)
Dumoulin (1995) PFMT+ES+BF IV 13/19 (68) 32 (9.5)
Johnson (2001) PFMT (SVC) v PFMT (NMVC) II 15/23 (65) 50 (35–65)
Hay-Smith (2002) A PFMT (motor learning/strength) v PFMT (motor learning) II 15/23 (65) 48.8 (13.2 SD)
Arvonen (2001) PFMT v PFMT+VW II 15/23 (65) 48 (range 28–65)
Cammu & van Nylen (1998) PFMT+BF v VW II 15/23 (65) 55.9 (9.5)
Turkan (2005) PFMT+ES III-2 11/19 (58) 47.6 (8)
Pieber (1995) PFMT+BF v PFMT+BF+VW II 13/23 (57) 43 (+/- 6)
Chen (1999) PFMT+ES IV 11/19 (58) NS (range 20 to >50)
Glavind (1996) PFMT v PFMT+BF II 13/23 (57) 45 (median)(range 40–48)
Pages (2001) PFMT v BF II 13/23 (57) 51.1 (range 27–80)
Bidmead (2002) A PFMT v PFMT+ES v PFMT+sham ES v control II 10/23 (43) NR
Sung (2000) PFMT III-2 8/19 (42) range 18 – >60
Aksac (2003) PFMT v PFMT+BF v control II 9/23 (39) 52.9 (7.2)
Balmforth (2004) A PFMT+BF IV 6/19 (32) 49.5 (10.6)
Finkenhagen (1998) A PFMT IV 5/19 (26) 49 (range 25–67)
  1. A = available in English only as abstract; a = According to Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Hierarchy of Evidence (1998); b = Mean age (SD) unless otherwise stated; PFMT = pelvic floor muscle training; ES = electrical stimulation; BF = biofeedback; VW = vaginal weights; PT = physiotherapist; UDS = urodynamics studies; NR = not reported, SVC = submaximal voluntary contraction, NMVC = near-maximal voluntary contraction