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Table 11 Male respondents: Associations with domestic physical violence (number of responses, Odds Ratio and 99%confidence interval)

From: Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

   Botswana Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Namibia Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Overall
   Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence
   Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Reported having multiple partners Yes 85 222 57 307 26 174 40 382 65 225 101 256 144 280 109 282 627 2128
  No 86 398 23 249 45 810 30 466 96 654 40 233 181 598 91 616 592 4024
  OR(99%CI) 1.77 (1.13–2.77) 2.01 (1.03–3.90) 2.69 (1.41–5.14) 1.63 (0.86–3.09) 1.97 (1.25–3.10) 2.30 (1.36–3.89) 1.70 (1.21–2.39) 2.62 (1.75–3.91) 2.00 (1.70–2.35)
Income gap Yes 67 212 19 147 0 39 8 52 67 322 51 197 47 158 35 191 294 1318
  No 117 510 66 493 69 987 59 766 100 607 104 397 286 762 168 820 969 5342
  OR 99% 1.38 (0.88–2.15) 0.97 (0.47–1.97) not calculated 2.00 (0.72–5.54) 1.26 (0.81–1.97) 0.99 (0.60–1.62) 0.79 (0.50–1.26) 0.89 (0.53–1.51) 1.23 (1.02–1.49)
Negative attitudes about sex and violence Yes 35 75 40 268 21 218 28 315 33 169 56 109 115 229 54 104 382 1487
  No 154 664 51 387 51 816 42 545 135 775 106 501 215 676 151 914 905 5278
  OR 99% 2.01 (1.14–3.55) 1.13 (0.63–2.03) 1.54 (0.77–3.08) 1.15 (0.60–2.22) 1.12 (0.65–1.94) 2.43 (1.48–3.99) 1.58 (1.11–2.25) 3.14 (1.96–5.03) 1.50 (1.26–1.78)
Feels himself to be at risk of getting AIDS Yes 120 428 38 245 33 321 42 381 49 292 83 249 137 298 83 248 585 2462
  No 56 262 37 358 38 691 27 420 106 607 59 314 192 597 98 675 613 3924
  OR 99% 1.31 (0.83–2.08) 1.50 (0.80–2.82) 1.87 (1.00–3.51) 1.71 (0.89–3.30) 0.96 (0.59–1.56) 1.77 (1.09–2.89) 1.43 (1.02–2.01) 2.31 (1.51–3.52) 1.52 (1.29–1.79)
Negative attitudes to AIDS Yes 16 24 14 69 7 64 3 77 10 39 11 19 46 61 16 25 123 378
  No 173 715 77 595 65 970 67 783 158 905 151 591 291 863 189 1000 1171 6422
  OR 99% 2.76 (1.20–6.31) 1.57 (0.70–3.53) 1.63 (0.56–4.75) 0.46 (0.10–2.07) 1.47 (0.58–3.74) 2.27 (0.85–6.04) 2.24 (1.33–3.77) 3.39 (1.51–7.57) 1.78 (1.35–2.35)