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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of women populations surveyed in German national health surveys before (1997–1999) and after (2003–2004) the publication of the EPT-WHI trial results

From: Differences in Menopausal Hormone Therapy Use among Women in Germany between 1998 and 2003

  1997–1999 survey 2003–2004 survey p-value
Sample size (unweighted total n) 2284 (2248) 2362 (2215)  
Continuous variables, mean ± SD    
Age, years 59.8 ± 12.0 60.0 ± 12.5 0.437
BMI, kg/m 2 27.8 ± 5.1 27.6 ± 5.2 0.566
Nominal and ordinal variables, n (%)    
Residence in former West Germany 1762(77.1) 1841(77.9) 0.515
Social status    
   Lower 691(31.8) 848(36.9) < 0.001
   Intermediate 1115(51.4) 1003(43.7)  
   Upper 364(16.8) 446(19.4)  
Smoking status    
   Smoker 405(18.4) 485(20.5) < 0.001
   Ex-smoker 349(15.9) 538(22.8)  
   Non-smoker 1447(65.7) 1339(56.7)  
Physical activity    
   0 hrs/wk 1277(58.4) 1135(48.6) < 0.001
   < 1 hrs/wk 268(12.2) 232(9.9)  
   1–2 hrs/wk 377(17.2) 503(21.5)  
   > 2 hrs/wk 266(12.2) 466(19.9)  
Pre-existing medical conditions (yes vs. no)    
Diabetes 217(9.6) 228(9.7) 0.891
Hypertension 868(38.2) 950(40.4) 0.128
Hyperlipidemia 751(33.0) 881(37.5) 0.001
CVD 385(16.9) 355(15.3) 0.124
Current MHT use # , n (%) 386(16.9) 238(10.1) < 0.001
   ≤ 1 year (new starters) 71(3.1) 16(0.7) < 0.001
   1–3 years 81(3.5) 31(1.3) < 0.001
   > 3 years (long-term users) 230(10.1) 189(8.0) 0.014
  1. All results are weighted to the distribution of main demographic characteristics (age, sex, residence in West or East Germany and level of urbanity) in the German population according to official population statistics at the time of the survey as well as in 2003.
  2. p-values are based on t-tests for continuous variables or χ2-tests for dichotomous variables.
  3. EPT-WHI = combined estrogen plus progestin therapy arm of the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial; BMI = Body mass index; CVD = cardiovascular disease; hr(s)/wk = hour(s)/week; MHT = menopausal hormone therapy.
  4. # Information for duration of MHT use was missing in 4 users in the 1997–1999 survey and 2 users in the 2003–2004 survey.