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Table 3 Odds Ratios and Confidence Intervals for hormonal contraceptive effect (HC), medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) effect, >4 year HC use on (a). presence and (b). severity of disease.

From: Cervical dysplasia and cancer and the use of hormonal contraceptives in Jamaican women

  Presence of disease Severity of disease
Model OR (CI) OR CI
Hormonal contraceptive use:    
Never used 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
HCa 1.92 (1.11, 3.34) 2.22 (1.05, 4.66)
HC + parity + alcohol intake ab 1.59 (0.87, 2.82)   
DMPA use:    
Never used 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
DMPAa 2.43 (1.39, 4.57) 2.51 (1.11, 5.64)
DMPA + parity + alcohol intakeab 2.48 (1.30, 4.74)   
Length of exposure: a    
Never used 1.0 (reference) 1.0 (reference)
1–4 years 1.47 (0.80, 2.71) 1.68 (0.73, 3.89)
>4 years HC use 3.56 (1.81, 7.00) 4.43 (1.84, 10.67)
  1. a Models were adjusted for age and number of sexual partners.
  2. ab Variables entered; age and number of sex partners, variables offered: parity and alcohol consumption.