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Table 4 Muscle strength according to manual muscle testing; scale 1–5, 5 being the strongest

From: Musculoskeletal sequelae in patients with obstetric fistula – a case–control study

  Fistula cases Control group P-value
  N Gr 5 Gr <5 N Gr 5 Gr <5  
Hip medial rotation 138 62 (44.9%) 76 (55.1%) 198 66 (33.3%) 132 (66.7%) 0.04
Hip lateral rotation 138 57 (41.3%) 81 (58.7%) 198 43 (21.7%) 155(78.3%) <0.001
Hip flexion 138 60 (43.5%) 78 (56.5%) 200 68 (34%) 132 (66%) 0.10
Hip extension 120 40 (33.4%) 80 (66.7%) 113 5 (4.4%) 108 (95.6%) <0.001
Hip abduction 138 54 (39.1%) 84 (60.9%) 198 47 (23.7%) 151 (76.3%) 0.04
Hip adduction 136 26 (19.1%) 110 (80.9%) 195 31 (15.9%) 164 (84.1%) 0.54
Knee flexion 138 49 (35.5%) 89 (64.5%) 196 29 (14.8%) 167 (85.2%) <0.001
Knee extension 138 82 (59.4%) 56 (40.6%) 200 116 (58%) 84 (42%) 0.88
Ankle dorsal flexion 135 97 (71.9%) 38 (28.1%) 198 167 (84.3%) 31 (15.7%) 0.009
Ankle inversion 136 78 (57.4%) 58 (42.6%) 198 122 (61.6%) 76 (38.4%) 0.51
Ankle eversion 136 84 (61.8%) 52 (38.2%) 198 126 (63.6%) 72 (36.4%) 0.82
Ankle plantar flexion 140 112 (80%) 28 (20%) 182 160 (87.9%) 22 (12.1%) 0.07
  1. The results are dichotomised in grade5 or <5 and presented with numbers (%) and p-value for the difference between the fistula and control group. Left and right leg was pooled making a total of 140 cases and 200 controls. Variation in N reflects incomplete examination numbers among the participants.
  2. Bold numbers indicate statistical significance.