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Table 1 Characteristics of Southern African lesbian and bisexual women by forced sex experience (N = 591)

From: Histories of forced sex and health outcomes among Southern African lesbian and bisexual women: a cross-sectional study

  Total No forced sex Forced by men only Forced by women only Forced by men and women  
(percent) (n = 407) (n = 88) (n = 39) (n = 57) F/χ2
Age (mean) (SE) 26.0 (0.27) 25.8 26.5 25.4 26.8 0.73
Race       3.56
 Black 464 (78.8) 68.8 14.2 7.3 9.7  
 Coloured 73 (12.4) 65.8 17.8 5.5 11.0  
 Other 52 (8.8) 73.1 17.3 1.9 7.7  
Education       13.08**
 Low 269 (45.7) 73.0 15.7 5.3 6.0+  
 High 319 (54.3) 64.3 13.8 8.2 13.8+  
Employment       24.10*
 Full time 192 (32.4) 70.8 16.1 3.1 9.9  
 Part time 73 (12.4) 65.8 17.8 4.1 12.3  
 Student 96 (16.2) 72.9 14.6 7.3 5.2  
 Unemployed 199 (33.7) 67.8 11.6 8.5 12.1  
 Other 31 (5.2) 58.1 22.6 19.4+ 0.0  
Regular income       5.76
 No 302 (51.9) 67.5 13.6 8.6 10.3  
 Yes 280 (48.1) 70.4 16.8 4.3 8.6  
Health insurance       7.00
 No 374 (63.9) 65.5 16.0 7.5 11.0  
 Yes 211 (36.1) 75.4 13.3 5.2 6.2  
Country       76.62***
 Botswana 51 (8.6) 88.2 11.8 0.0 0.0+  
 Namibia 112 (19.0) 50.9+ 9.8 9.8 29.5+  
 Zimbabwe 64 (10.8) 65.6 17.2 6.3 10.9  
 South Africa 364 (61.6) 72.3 16.5 6.6 4.7+  
(Ever) married       5.34
 No 543 (91.9) 69.8 14.0 6.8 9.4  
 Yes 48 (8.1) 58.3 25.0 4.2 12.5  
Has children       27.14***
 No 451 (76.3) 72.9 12.2 7.5 7.3  
 Yes 140 (23.7) 55.7 23.6+ 3.6 17.1+  
Sexual attraction       5.90
 Women only 416 (70.5) 68.3 14.2 8.2 9.4  
 Women/men 174 (29.5) 70.1 16.7 2.9 10.3  
Sexual identification       6.14
 Lesbian/Gay 452 (76.9) 68.4 14.6 8.0 9.1  
 Other 136 (23.1) 70.6 15.4 2.2 11.8  
Gender orientation       
 Masculinity, mean (SE) 2.57 (0.05) 2.57 2.44 2.88 2.56 1.10
 Femininity, mean (SE)1 2.93 (0.05) 2.93a 3.25b 2.54a 2.62a 4.04**
General sense of belonging,       
 Mean (SE)1 2.86 (0.03) 2.91b 2.72a 2.91a 2.67a 3.52*
LGBT sense of belonging,       
 Mean (SE)1 3.25 (0.03) 3.31c 3.29c 3.11a 2.87b 10.10***
Drinking problems, mean (SE)1 1.71 (0.06) 1.51c 1.87a 2.78b 2.07b 10.54***
Drug use problems       
 In the last month 207 (35.0) 59.9 19.3 6.8 14.0 4.83**
 None in last month 384 (65.0) 73.7 12.5 6.5 7.3  
Mental distress, mean (SE)1 2.12 (0.04) 1.97b 2.43a 2.42a 2.53a 14.32***
STI symptoms, mean (SE)1 1.85 (0.10) 1.55a 2.35b 2.14a 3.44c 11.40***
  1. *p < .01; **p < .05; ***p < .001.
  2. +Proportions deviating significantly (p < .05) from what is expected based on margin totals (standardized adjusted residual > |1.96|).
  3. 1Means with different subscripts differ significantly (p < .05).