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Table 4 Multivariable model to test the factors associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries

From: Genito-anal injury patterns and associated factors in rape survivors in an urban province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study

  Univariate analysis OR (95% CI) p value Multivariable analysis (N = 974) OR (95% CI) p value
PATIENT INFORMATION
Age (N = 1447)     
<18 years -    
18 - 44 years 1.9 (1.5 - 2.4) 0.000 1.4 (0.9 - 2.0) 0.157
≥45 years 1.1 (0.6 - 1.9) 0.835 0.5 (0.2 - 1.1) 0.078
Virgin (N = 1311)     
No - 0.000 -  
Yes 0.4 (0.3 - 0.6)   0.4 (0.3 - 0.7) 0.000
Previously pregnant (N = 1131)     
No - 0.011   
Yes 1.4 (1.1 - 1.8)    
Disability (N = 1472)     
No - 0.329   
Yes 1.5 (0.7 - 3.6)    
Under influence of drugs or alcohol (N = 1114)     
No - 0.945   
Yes 1.0 (0.5 - 1.8)    
RAPE
Length of time perpetrator detained victim (N = 1411)     
Less than a day -    
1 day of more 0.8 (0.6 - 1.1) 0.182   
Multiple perpetrators (N = 1437)     
No - 0.022 -  
Yes 0.7 (0.5 - 1.0)   0.6 (0.4 - 0.9) 0.017
Perpetrator victim relationship (N = 1414)     
Any relative -    
Current or ex-partner 1.6 (1.0 - 2.7) 0.062   
Stranger or someone known only slightly/by sight 1.2 (0.8 - 1.9) 0.356   
Some other known person 1.4 (0.9 - 2.2) 0.154   
Perpetrator armed (N = 1442)     
No -    
Yes 1.3 (1.0 - 1.6) 0.042   
Victim hurt with weapon (N = 517)     
No -    
Yes 0.7 (0.5 - 1.1) 0.124   
Victim threatened (N = 1472)     
No -    
Yes 1.2 (0.9 - 1.4) 0.192  
Physical force used (N = 1429)     
No -    
Yes 1.1 (0.9 - 1.4) 0.435   
Victim resisted (N = 1472)     
No -    
Yes 1.0 (0.8 - 1.3) 0.898   
Number of penetrations (N = 1272)     
1 -    
>1 0.8 (0.6 - 1.0) 0.035   
EXAMINATION
Time from rape to examination (N = 1262)    -  
<2 days -   1.5 (1.0 - 2.3) 0.035
2 - 10 days 1.0 (0.7 - 1.4) 0.874   
Doctor's qualification (N = 1223)     
Medical degree -   -  
Higher than medical degree 0.6 (0.4 - 0.9) 0.010 0.6 (0.4 - 0.9) 0.020