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Table 2 Main diagnostic symptoms and signs obtained from history taking and physical examination respectively

From: Clinical diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis: a scoping review

Author(s) [Ref.] Year Study design Sample size Findings
Eskenazi et al. [8] 2001 Prospective study (study sample); retrospective record review (test sample). 90 Symptoms: Dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, dyspareunia and infertility.
Signs: Uterosacral ligament scarring, nodularity, or pain, nodularity or pain in the pouch of Douglas, vaginal endometriotic lesions, painful or fixed adnexal masses, and fixed uterus or pain on movement of uterus in pelvic examination.
Chapron et al. [28] 2002 Retrospective analysis 160 Signs: Endometriotic lesions seen in speculum examination and classic, painful, spheric nodule or painful induration in palpation.
Ballweg L M [29] 2004 Cross sectional 7000 Symptoms: Fatigue, exhaustion, low energy, numerous gastrointestinal symptoms, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, painful bowel movements or other intestinal upset, nausea and stomach upset at time of period, a wide range of allergies and allergic disease; heavy or irregular bleeding, pain with or after sex, dizziness and headaches at the time of the period and other debilitating symptoms (unable to carry on normal activities, including work or school), in addition to the classic symptom of pain (dysmenorrhea, pain with or after sex (dyspareunia). Lower back pain, pain in the rectum, irregular bleeding, low resistance to infection, infertility, premenstrual spotting, low-grade fever, Pain related to urination, candidiasis, mid cycle bleeding, mitral valve prolapse.
Lemaire. [11] 2004 Descriptive, cross-sectional correlational study. 298 Symptoms: Menstrual cramping, fatigue, lower back pain, heavy menstrual flow, non-period pelvic pain, diarrhea with period, allergy, urinary frequency, pain with intercourse, depressed feelings, constipation, muscle/bone pain, headache, anxious feelings, joint pain, leg pain, spotting between/before periods, rectal pain, urinary infection, yeast infection.
Cheewadhanaraks et al. [30] 2004 Prospective study 116 Signs: Tenderness and/or nodularity of the cul-de-sac and/or uterosacral ligament(s).
Chapron et al. [31] 2005 Cross sectional 134 Symptoms: Painful defecation during menses, severe dyspareunia, pain other than noncyclic, and previous surgery for endometriosis.
Ballard and Mangubat. [32] 2007 National community-based case–control 27715 Symptoms: Pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, menorrhagia, urinary symptoms (dysuria, cystitis, and urinary tract infections), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), pelvic inflammatory disease and ovarian cysts.
Flores et al. [33] 2008 Cross sectional 1285 Symptoms: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, conceiving problems, chronic pelvic pain, ovarian cysts, migraines, and gynecological infections.
Greene et al. [34] 2009 Cross-sectional 4334 Symptoms: Pelvic pain, menstrual pain, ovulatory and nonmenstrual pain, lifetime presence of all three pain types, heavy bleeding, infertility, bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain with urination, nausea/stomach upset or dizziness/headache during menses.
Ballard et al. [35] 2010 Prospective questionnaire-based 185 Symptoms: Throbbing pain and dyschezia.
Abbas et al. [7] 2012 Cohort 62,323 Symptoms: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, intermenstrual pain, menorrhagia, ovarian cysts, pelvic pain, postcoital bleeding, infertility, irritable bowel syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease.
Nnoaham et al. [36] 2012 Prospective, observational, two-phase study 1,396 Symptoms: Dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, Bowel/urinary symptoms, infertility, family history.
Hadisaputra. [37] 2013 Cross sectional 80 Symptoms: Infertility, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Signs: Rectovaginal nodule and cervical tenderness.
Cavaggioni et al. [47] 2014 Case- control 80 Symptoms: Mood and anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive malfunction, depression, alexithymia.
Heitmann et al. [51] 2014 Retrospective cohort study 80 Symptom: Premenstrual spotting of ≥ _2 days
Walch et al. [52] 2014 Prospective, controlled clinical trial 102 Symptom: Cyclic leg pain
Barbosa et al. [53] 2014 Cross sectional 387 Symptom: Dysmenorrhea was the only clinical symptom