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Table 4 Examinations, medical treatment, and surgery due to gastrointestinal symptoms

From: Gastrointestinal symptoms among endometriosis patients—A case-cohort study

  Patients with endometriosisn = 109
Examinations conducted because of gastrointestinal symptoms (n)  
 Diagnostic laparoscopy (without surgery) 30
 No examinations conducted 23
 Ultrasonography 17
 Colonoscopy 13
 Gastroscopy 12
 Unspecified examinations (including x-ray and endoscopy) 9
 Rectoscopy 8
Previous or current pharmacological treatment because of gastrointestinal complaints (Yes/No/Unknown)  
 Opioids 20/88/1
 Other analgesic treatment than opioids 21/78/10
 Other pharmacological treatment than analgesics 29/70/10
Types of pharmacological treatment other than opioids for gastrointestinal complaints (n)  
 NSAIDs 16
 Bulking agents or laxatives 11
 PPIs 10
 Paracetamol 9
 Loperamide 2
 Gabapentin or pregabalin 2
 Natural remedies or probiotics 2
 Cyanocobalamin 1
 Diazepam 1
 Papaverine 1
Types of current medication (n)  
 Combined oral contraceptives 23
 NSAIDs 20
 Antidepressants (including SSRIs, venlafaxin, and mirtazapin) 19
 Opioids 14
 Paracetamol 14
 Allergy and asthma medication 11
Have undergone abdominal surgery (Yes/No) 98/11
Type of abdominal surgery (n)  
 Laproscopic surgery (because of endometriosis) 71
 Unspecified 43
 Sectio 11
 Appendectomy 8
 Hysterectomy 8
 Removal of ovaries and/or oviducts 6
  1. NSAID = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SSRIs = selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors; PPIs = proton pump inhibitors; GnRH = gonadotropin releasing hormone. The six most common currently used medications and abdominal surgery are reported. Patients could have undergone more than one examination, used more than one medication, and had more than one type of abdominal surgery conducted. Values are given as number