Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariable odds ratios between risk factors and sexual or physical IPV in the last 12 months

From: Correlates of intimate partner violence against women during a time of rapid social transition in Rwanda: analysis of the 2005 and 2010 demographic and health surveys

  2005 2010
  Full Reduced Full Reduced Full Reduced
Beliefs and behaviors       
Emotional violence by partner last 12 months       
 No 1.00 1.00    Not Not
 Yes 19.0*** 18.1***    available available
Woman beat partner unprovoked last 12 months       
 No 1.00 1.00    Not Not
 Yes 10.8* 12.3**    available available
Woman’s father beat mother       
 No 1.00 1.00    Not Not
 Yes 1.80*** 1.82***    available available
Partner consumes alcohol very often       
 Never or sometimes 1.00 1.00    Not Not
 Very often 3.16*** 3.13***    available available
Partner believes a man can beat his wife       
 0 reasons 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 1+ reasons 1.11   1.12   1.29* 1.30*
Woman believes a man can beat his wife       
 0 reasons 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1+ reasons 1.00   1.03   1.35** 1.36**
Woman involved in her own health decisions       
 Partner only, other 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 Woman involved 0.80   0.84   0.78* 0.79*
Woman involved with decisions about her earnings       
 Partner only, other 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 Woman involved 1.04   0.93   0.59** 0.57**
 No earnings 0.71   0.64   0.48*** 0.47***
 Not working 0.75   0.72   0.65* 0.62*
Partner had sex with non-wife last 12 months       
 No 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.94   1.13   2.49*** 2.52***
Woman says it is okay to refuse sex       
 No 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.05   0.98   0.81  
Socio-demographics       
Woman’s age       
 15–19 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 20–29 1.15   1.22   1.47  
 30–39 1.07   1.09   1.62  
 40–49 1.48   1.33   1.89  
Household wealth       
 Top 4 quintiles 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 Bottom quintile 0.98   0.99   1.22 1.25*
Household residence       
 Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Rural 1.44   1.17   1.06  
Polygynous couple       
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.55* 1.51* 2.35*** 2.41*** 2.31*** 2.29**
Woman’s children       
 Has no children 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Has at least one son 1.95   2.04* 2.04* 1.67 2.05**
 Has daughters only 2.24*   2.13* 2.11* 2.09* 2.58***
Number of children <15 in household       
 None 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 or 2 0.98   1.00   1.30  
 3 or 4 0.99   1.20   1.23  
 5+ 1.04   1.17   1.18  
Number of adults in addition to couple in household       
 None 1.00   1.00   1.00  
 1 or 2 0.61*   0.67*   0.90  
 3+ 0.49   0.47   0.63  
Partner’s employment       
 Employed, for cash 1.00   1.00   1.00 1.00
 Employed, in - kind 0.77   0.76   1.54*** 1.58***
 Not working 0.72*   0.85   0.67 0.65
Partner’s education       
 Less than secondary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Secondary or higher 0.46** 0.43** 0.44** 0.45** 0.88  
Woman’s education       
 No school 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00  
 Primary 1.34   1.38* 1.40* 1.30  
 Secondary or higher 0.85   0.88 0.88 1.27  
N (weighted)a 1502 1520 1527 1544 2027 2029
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.5
  2. aSample size reduced by missing responses among covariates