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Table 4 Multivariate model (odds ratios) showing factors associated with married women’s empowerment by two dependent variables (education and work status)

From: Correlates of gender characteristics, health and empowerment of women in Ethiopia

Variables Dependent variable: Education (with primary education and above =1 and illiterate = 0) Dependent variable: Work Status (Yes = 1 and No = 0)
  DHS 2005 (N = 8914) DHS 2011 (N = 9594 ) DHS 2005 (N = 8914) DHS 2011 (N = 9594)
  Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
  Model I EXP(β) Model II EXP(β) Model I EXP(β) Model II EXP(β) Model I EXP(β) Model II EXP(β) Model I EXP(β) Model II EXP(β)
Age of respondent   *** ***    *** ***  
   15–24 - - -      
   25–34 0.68 0.78 0.26 2.27 1.35 5.75 1.60 2.60
   35–44 0.30 0.53 0.17 1.71 1.60 2.88 1.48 2.96
   45–49 0.11 0.20 0.09 3.23 1.39 1.49 1.46 2.86
Wealth quintile    *** ***     
   Poorest         
   Poorer 1.17 1.65 1.51 1.20 1.07 1.22 1.27 1.21
   Middle 1.87 2.33 1.81 1.27 1.03 1.97 1.58 1.10
   Richer 2.70 4.21 2.79 3.42 1.19 1.77 1.68 1.04
   Richest 6.39 10.33 10.90 2.13 1.25 1.62 2.89 0.85
Place of residence         
   Urban         
   Rural 3.89 2.58 6.44 0.12 1.15 0.06 2.19 1.36
Region    *** ***    ***  
   Tigray         
   Affar 0.38 0.51 0.27 0.55. 0.13 0.68 0.46 0.39
   Amhara 0.65 0.45 0.58 0.93 0.61 0.52 1.01 0.52
   Oromiya 1.11 1.76 1.09 1.13 0.70 0.69 1.65 1.40
   Somali 0.19 0.33 0.29 0.52 0.15 0.75 0.56 0.57
   Ben-Gumz 0.92 0.89 0.73 1.35 1.01 1.29 1.82 0.90
   SNNP 0.70 1.51 1.09 1.57 0.44 0.67 1.64 1.82
   Gambela 1.27 1.98 1.65 0.96 0.64 1.15 1.56 2.47
   Harari 1.21 1.62 1.86 0.36 0.64 2.75 1.58 2.94
   Addis Ababa 1.53 1.59 6.37 1.45 0.56 1.13 2.72 12.02
   Dire Dawa 0.85 1.59 1.46 1.01 0.43 1.73 1.51 1.89
Religion    *** ***    ***  
   Orthodox         
   Protestant 1.70 1.54 0.97 1.92 0.76 0.63 0.99 1.05
   Muslim 0.55 0.62 0.38 0.60 0.80 0.43 0.54 0.72
   Traditional 0.59 0.88 0.24 0.36 1.36 ???? 1.08 3.68
   Catholic and Others 1.25 1.39 0.49 0.93 1.00 0.48 1.24 1.18
  1. Source: Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 and 2011) data