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Table 3 Odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for factors associated with approval of domestic violence against wivesa

From: Women’s approval of domestic physical violence against wives: analysis of the Ghana demographic and health survey

Predictors Agrees with at least one form of violence Model Ib OR (95 % CI) Agrees with at least one form of violence Model IIc OR (95 % CI)
Age
  35-49 1.0 1.0
  25-34 1.14 (1.10-1.25)* 1.47 (1.20-1.76)*
  15-24 1.10 (1.02-1.24)* 1.30 (1.13-1.49)*
Level of education
  Higher 1.0 1.0
  Secondary 2.10 (1.72-2.56)** 1.77 (1.44-2.18)*
  Primary 3.67 (2.95-4.55)** 2.59 (2.05-3.27) **
  No education 5.66 (4.62-6.95)*** 3.10 (2.43-3.94)***
Occupation
  Working 1.0 1.0
  Not working 0.93 (0.85-1.02) 1.07 (0.91-1.25)
Marital status
  Never married 1.0 1.0
  Currently married 1.33 (1.22-1.45)* 1.11 (0.93-1.33)
  Formerly married 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 0.99 (0.77-1.28)
Place of residence
  Urban 1.0 1.0
  Rural 2.00 (1.85-2.17)* 1.19 (1.01-1.42)*
Religion
  Christian 1.0 1.0
  Moslem 2.06 (1.85-2.29)** 1.53 (1.31-1.80)*
  Traditional 2.87 (2.24-3.52)*** 1.69 (1.19-2.38)**
  Others 1.86 (1.50-2.40)* 1.04 (0.80-1.35)
Wealth Index
  Richest 1.0 1.0
  Rich 1.76 (1.55-2.00)* 1.64 (1.37-1.96)*
  Middle 2.16 (1.89-2.46)** 1.91 (1.55-2.35)*
  Poor 2.80 (2.46-3.18)** 2.25 (1.78-2.85)**
  Poorer 4.74 (4.18-5.38)*** 3.48 (2.73-4.44)***
  1. aComputed from the 2003 and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey
  2. bModel I = Univariate model
  3. cModel II = Multivariate model of all independent variable statistically significant at the bivariate level
  4. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001