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Table 2 Summary of commonly studied determinants of total unmet need for family planning

From: A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries

Level health service Availability long-acting FP methods              
Access to FP services        n     
Access to FP information     n         
Level household or community Rural residence   + n   +   n   +    +  
Low socioeconomic status   +   n    + n     + n  
Preference for male offspring     n         
Level couple Couple discussing FP          n    +  
Level partner Partner’s level of education    n n   n   n   n   
Partner’s desire for more children            n   
Level woman Decision-making authority              
Being religious (M = Muslim, C = Catholic)     +M n n     n +C   
Woman’s level of own income    n    n   n    
Woman’s level of education n n   n n n +  
Woman’s awareness or knowledge of FP        n n      
Previous abortions            +    
Number of previous children or pregnancies n + n + n + n   + + + +  
Age of woman at marriage    n + +      n    
Age of woman   n n n ±ª n   ±b n  
  Total unmet need (%) 59 24r 45r 25 37r 21 29 42r 52r 22 7r 41 27 31r
  Country or Region Nigeria Pakistan Sudan Nepal Ethiopia Nigeria Zambia Ghana Ethiopia Nepal Egypt Uganda Eritrea SSA
  Publication* Adeyemi et al. 2005 [10] Ahmed et al., 2011 [48] Ali and Okud, 2013 [36] Bhandari et al., 2006 [45] Hailemariam et Haddis, 2011 [8] Igwegbe et al., 2009 [11] Imasiku et al., 2014 [33] Machiyama et Cleland, 2013 [46] Mekonnen et Worku, 2011 [12] Paudel et al. 2011 [34] Sultan et al., 2010 [42] Wablembo et al., 2011 [47] Woldemicael et Beaujot, 2011 [43] Jain et al. 2014 [64]
  1. + = statistically significant positive association; – = statistically significant negative association; n = no statistically significant association
  2. * Year of data used for reported prevalence estimation does not necessarily concur with year of publication
  3. a Women’s age positively associated in age range <34 years, negatively associated in age range >34 years
  4. b Women’s age positively associated in age range <30 years, negatively associated in age range >30 years
  5. r estimates for unmet need based on ‘revised definition’ and thus likely overestimating total unmet need for FP compared to ‘original definition’
  6. C Catholic Second
  7. M Muslim
  8. SSA Sub-Saharan Africa