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Table 4 Summary of explored themes on reasons contributing to the unmet need for FP identified in qualitative studies (+ = contributing; – = not contributing)

From: A scoping review on determinants of unmet need for family planning among women of reproductive age in low and middle income countries

Level health service Lack of trust in FP service provider   +   +   + + +
Unavailability of information on methods   + + + + + + +
Unavailability of modern methods   +   +   + +  
Level household or community Opposition from family + + +      +
Opposition from community leaders         +
Level couple Lack of couple discussing FP +   + + +    +
Level partner Partner’s fear of infidelity/promiscuity + + + + + +   +
Limited male involvement in FP issues     + +    +
Level woman Religious belief + + + +   +   +
Desire to space + +    +    +
Reproductive obligation + + + + +    
Woman’s level of education   +       
Misconception on FP method   + + + + +   +
Fear of domestic violence +        
Fear of stigma +   +    +   +
Fear of side effects   +   + +    
Lack of autonomy in decision making +    + + +   
  Country Ghana India Uganda Uganda Tanzania Tanzania Ethiopia Guatemala
  Publication Bawah et al. 1999 [39] Hall et al., 2008 [38] Kabagenyi et al., 2014 [19] Kaida et al., 2005 [40] Mosha et al., 2013 [21] Plummer et al., 2006 [41] Sonalkar et al., 2013 [50] Ward et al., 1992 [35]