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Table 4 Mean hemoglobin levels according to village, household and individual level variables. First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition. Brazil, 2008–2009. Geopolitical region was included as a control variable at all levels

From: Anemia among indigenous women in Brazil: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  β (95 % CI) β 95 % CI β 95 % CI
Level 1: Village       
Absence of Indigenous Initiatives Project -0.11 (-0.35; 0.14) -0.08 (-0.32; 0.17) -0.11 (-0.35; 0.13)
Absence of Indigenous Community Healthcare Initiatives Project -0.06 (-0.29; 0.17) -0.05 (-0.28; 0.18) -0.09 (-0.31; 0.14)
Absence of Food Acquisition Project 0.07 (-0.15; 0.29) 0.06 (-0.16; 0.29) 0.06 (-0.16; 0.28)
Level 2: Household characteristics       
Housing condition index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    0.10 (0.00; 0.20) 0.11 (0.00; 0.21)
  3rd tertile    0.06 (-0.07; 0.18) 0.06 (-0.06; 0.19)
Sanitation index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    -0.01 (-0.13; 0.09) -0.04 (-0.15; 0.07)
  3rd tertile    -0.02 (-0.14; 0.11) -0.06 (-0.18; 0.07)
Household goods index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    0.07 (-0.02; 0.17) 0.08 (0.01; 0.18)
  3rd tertile    0.19 (0.08; 0.30) 0.15 (0.03; 0.26)
Absence of regular income    -0.05 (-0.12; 0.03) -0.00 (-0.07; 0.07)
Absence of food shortages    0.05 (-0.02; 0.13) 0.05 (-0.03; 0.13)
Purchased foods index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    0.01 (-0.09; 0.12) -0.01 (-0.12; 0.09)
  3rd tertile    0.05 (-0.07; 0.17) 0.05 (-0.07; 0.17)
Wild food index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    -0.05 (-0.16; 0.07) -0.00 (-0.12; 0.10)
  3rd tertile    -0.07 (-0.21; 0.07) -0.05 (-0.19; 0.09)
Garden produce index       
  1st tertile    Reference (0) Reference (0)
  2nd tertile    0.12 (0.03; 0.21) 0.12 (0.03; 0.22)
  3rd tertile    -0.04 (-0.15; 0.07) -0.05 (-0.16; 0.06)
Level 3: Individual characteristics       
Age group (years)       
  14–19      Reference (0)
  20–34      0.07 (-0.03; 0.17)
  35–49      0.11 (-0.03; 0.25)
Schooling (years)       
  0      Reference (0)
  1–4      -0.07 (-0.18; 0.04)
  5–9      -0.03 (-0.16; 0.10)
   ≥ 10      -0.07 (-0.22; 0.07)
BMI       
  Normal      Reference (0)
  Underweight      -0.09 (-0.29; 0.11)
  Overweight      0.15 (0.08; 0.23)
  Obese      0.25 (0.14; 0.36)
Parity      -0.06 (-0.09; -0.02)
Absence of malaria treatment      0.23 (0.09; 0.38)
No current pregnancy      0.98 (0.87; 1.09)
Intercept 12.5 (12.0; 13.0) 12.3 (11.8; 12.9) 11.3 (10.8; 11.9)
Deviance (-2 loglikelihood) 22513   21832   20361  
ICC village 0.13   0.12   0.11  
ICC region 0.04   0.03   0.03  
  1. β regression coefficient, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index
  2. Null model (n = 6651)
  3. Model 1: village (Level 1) (n = 6515)
  4. Model 2: village (Level 1) + household (Level 2) (n = 6332)
  5. Model 3: village (Level 1) + household (Level 2) + individual (Level 3) (n = 5998)