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Table 5 Anemia prevalence according to village, household and individual level variables. First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition. Brazil, 2008–2009. Geopolitical region was included as a control variable at all levels

From: Anemia among indigenous women in Brazil: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Level 1: Village       
Indigenous Community Healthcare Initiatives Project 1.03 (0.76; 1.38) 1.01 (0.75; 1.35) 1.03 (0.76; 1.38)
Level 2: Household characteristics       
Housing condition index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    0.95 (0.80; 1.12) 0.95 (0.80; 1.12)
  3rd tertile    0.93 (0.76; 1.14) 0.93 (0.75; 1.13)
Sanitation index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    0.99 (0.83; 1.18) 1.01 (0.85; 1.21)
  3rd tertile    1.17 (0.96; 1.43) 1.19 (0.97; 1.46)
Household goods index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    0.87 (0.76; 1.01) 0.88 (0.76; 1.01)
  3rd tertile    0.71 (0.60; 0.84) 0.73 (0.61; 0.87)
Absence of food shortages    0.93 (0.82; 1.06) 0.94 (0.82; 1.07)
Purchased foods index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    0.94 (0.80; 1.11) 0.95 (0.81; 1.13)
  3rd tertile    0.95 (0.78; 1.16) 0.95 (0.78; 1.16)
Wild food index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    1.25 (1.05; 1.50) 1.24 (1.04; 1.49)
  3rd tertile    1.15 (0.92; 1.43) 1.17 (0.94; 1.46)
Garden produce index       
  1st tertile    Reference (1) Reference (1)
  2nd tertile    0.88 (0.75; 1.02) 0.88 (0.75; 1.02)
  3rd tertile    1.04 (0.87; 1.24) 1.04 (0.87; 1.25)
Level 3: Individual characteristics       
Age group (years)       
  14–19      Reference (1)
  20–34      0.98 (0.83; 1.16)
  35–49      0.93 (0.74; 1.16)
Schooling (years)       
  0      Reference (1)
  1–4      1.07 (0.89; 1.27)
  5–9      1.06 (0.86; 1.30)
   ≥ 10      1.06 (0.83; 1.35)
BMI       
  Normal      Reference (1)
  Underweight      1.00 (0.71; 1.40)
  Overweight      0.80 (0.69; 0.90)
  Obese      0.73 (0.59; 0.87)
Parity      1.06 (1.00; 1.11)
Absence of malaria treatment      0.66 (0.53; 0.82)
Deviance (-2 loglikelihood) 8192   7909   7748  
ICC village 0.11   0.10   0.09  
ICC region 0.04   0.03   0.02  
  1. OR: odds ratio, CI: confidence interval, BMI: body mass index
  2. Null model (n = 6651)
  3. Model 1: village (Level 1) (n = 6624)
  4. Model 2: village (Level 1) + household (Level 2) (n = 6443)
  5. Model 3: village (Level 1) + household (Level 2) + individual (Level 3) (n = 6351)