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Table 2 Secondary prevention research, n= 208

From: Cervical cancer prevention and treatment research in Africa: a systematic review from a public health perspective

  Primary focus Literature type Countries/Geographic Regions Included
Secondary Prevention Screening Test Performance (N = 46)
 11 VIA/VILI [194, 196, 197, 232, 278284]
 15 HPV Testing [163, 182192, 285287]
 3 Cytology [288290]
 1 Colposcopy [291]
 16 Comparison of 2+ tests [16, 193, 195, 198, 292303]
41 Original Research [182, 184186, 188198, 232, 278293, 295, 296, 298303]
4 Review Article [16, 187, 294, 297]
Lessons Learned
1 Policy Papers [163]
Africa (2) [285, 297], Developing Countries (4) [16, 284, 294, 302], Angola (1) [197], Botswana (1) [232], Burkina Faso (5) [194, 280, 282, 291, 298], Cameroon (4) [182, 193, 286, 300], Democratic Republic of Congo (3) [195, 198, 296], Republic of the Congo (6) [191, 194, 280, 282, 291, 298], Egypt (2) [186, 278], Gambia (1) [192], Ghana (1) [288], Guinea (5) [194, 280, 282, 291, 298], Ivory Coast (1) [190], Kenya (2) [184, 301], Mali (5) [194, 280, 282, 291, 298], Niger (5) [194, 280, 282, 291, 298], Nigeria (4) [279, 287, 289, 293], Rwanda (1) [294], South Africa (7) [163, 183, 187, 188, 290, 292, 299], Tanzania (2) [196, 295]
Screen-and-Treat (SNT) (N = 16)
 8 VIA then Cryotherapy [63, 199201, 304307]
 5 Other SNT methods [61, 308311]
 3 Guidelines/Overview [51, 202, 203]
10 Original Research [61, 63, 200, 201, 305, 307311]
2 Review [203, 304]
2 Lessons Learned [199, 202]
2 Policy [51,283 1,217]
Global (1) [51], Africa (1) [203], Botswana (1) [307], Ghana (1) [63], Kenya (1) [61], Madagascar (1) [306], Malawi (1) [306], Nigeria (2) [306, 311],South Africa (2) [308, 310], Tanzania (1) [306], Uganda (2) [200, 306], Zambia (7) [199, 201, 202, 304306, 309]
Feasibility (N = 28)
 2 Infrastructure [215, 220]
 18 Provider Knowledge/Training/Attitudes [60, 82, 83, 208211, 312322]
 8 Cost/Cost-effectiveness [59, 125, 212214, 323325]
26 Original Research [59, 83, 125, 208215, 220, 312325]
2 Review [60, 82]
0 Lessons Learned
0 Policy
Africa (3) [82, 125, 212], Cameroon (1) [313], Ghana (1) [323], Ivory Coast (1) [208], Kenya (2) [59, 325], Nigeria (11) [83, 211, 220, 312, 315317, 319321], South Africa (6) [59, 213, 214, 318, 324, 325], Tanzania (1) [209], LRC [60]
Awareness and Utilization (N = 59)
 44 Knowledge, Attitudes, Uptake [53, 70, 72,  74, 7880, 204207, 225, 326357]
 15 Determinants of Uptake [62, 73, 358370]
59 Original Research [53, 62, 70, 7274, 7880, 204207, 225, 326370]
0 Review
0 Lessons Learned
0 Policy
Global (1) [368], Developing Countries (1) [328], Botswana (3) [72, 205, 349], Cameroon (1) [74], Ghana (2) [70, 326], Kenya (5) [204, 335, 340, 355, 358], Malawi (1) [53], Mozambique (1) [207], Morocco (1) [365], Nigeria (18) [78, 79, 225, 332334, 337, 338, 342, 344346, 348, 351, 352, 363, 366, 367], South Africa (12) [80, 327, 329, 330, 341, 347, 353, 356, 360, 361, 369], Sudan (1) [343], Tanzania (5) [62, 336, 362, 364, 370], Tunisia (1) [331]
HIV-Positive Women (N = 18)
 5 Service Integration [77, 84, 229231]
 9 Test Performance [371379]
 3 Knowledge, Attitudes, Uptake [75, 227, 228]
 1 Screen-and-Treat [226]
17 Original Research [75, 77, 84, 226230, 371379]
1 Review [231]
0 Lessons Learned
0 Policy
Global (1) [231], Burkina Faso (1) [373], Cameroon (1) [230], Kenya (4) [229, 374, 376, 378], Nigeria (3) [75, 84, 227], South Africa (6) [226, 228, 371, 373, 375, 377], Uganda (1) [379], Tanzania (1) [77]
Males and HPV Screening (N = 3)
 1 Knowledge and Beliefs [221], 1 Male Partner  Support [222], 1 Penile HPV Detection [223]
3 Original Research [221223]
0 Review
0 Lessons Learned
0 Policy
Ghana (1) [221], Kenya (1) [223], Uganda (1) [222]
Other (N = 38)
 23 Program/Policy Implementation [54, 71, 216219, 224, 380395]
 3 Screening Follow-Up [396, 397] and Side-effects [398]
 5 Overview of Current Situation [123, 399402]
 7 Other Ethical Issues,[403] message development, [404] overviews,[69, 85, 405, 406] publication output [407]
17 Original Research [71, 216, 217, 219, 224, 380, 381, 383385, 388, 395398, 403, 404]
14 Review [54, 69, 85, 123, 382, 391, 392, 394, 399, 400, 402, 405407]
4 Lessons Learned [218, 386, 387, 393]
3 Policy [389, 390, 401]
Africa (3) [391, 400, 405], Developing Countries (7) [54, 69, 85, 123, 382, 392, 406], Middle East/North Africa (1) [399], Ghana (2) [217, 401], Ivory Coast (1) [224], Kenya (2) [384, 403], Mali (1) [383], Mozambique (1) [216], Nigeria (6) [386388, 393, 396, 398], South Africa (11) [71, 218, 219, 381, 385, 390, 394, 395, 402, 404, 407], Sudan (1) [389]
  Total
N = 208
173 Original Research
23 Review Article
6 Lessons Learned
6 Policy Papers
Global (3), Africa (9), Developing Countries (11), Middle East/North Africa (1), Angola (1), Botswana (5), Burkina Faso (6), Cameroon (7), Congo (9), Egypt (2), Gambia (1), Ghana (8), Guinea (5), Ivory Coast (3), Kenya (17), Madagascar (1), Malawi (2), Mali (6), Morocco (1), Mozambique (2), Niger (5), Nigeria (43), Rwanda (1), South Africa (45), Sudan (2),Tanzania (9), Tunisia (1), Uganda (4), Zambia (7),