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Table 3 Odds ratios of having a barrier to care index in the lowest quartile (i.e., most significant barriers to surgical care) in northernmost regions of Ghana

From: Barriers to essential surgical care experienced by women in the two northernmost regions of Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

  Odds ratio (95 % CI) Adj. odds ratio (95 % CI)
Sex     
 Men Referent   Referent  
 Women 1.92 (1.15–3.24) 1.32 (0.72–2.43)
Age     
 18–50 years Referent   Referent  
 Extreme agesa 0.75 (0.44–1.28) 0.86 (0.48–1.56)
Education     
 None Referent   Referent  
 Any 1.17 (0.69–1.98) 1.23 (0.70–2.18)
Religion     
 Christian Referent   Referent  
 Religious minority 0.70 (0.40–1.21) 0.91 (0.49–1.69)
  1. Adj. odds ratio adjusted odds ratio; the multivariate model included each covariate given their a priori potential for representing vulnerable sub-populations, as well as community to control for intra-class correlation. Proportional change in variance = 77 %
  2. aExtreme ages: <18 years or >50 years