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Table 1 Types of Stigma

From: A qualitative exploration of cervical and breast cancer stigma in Karnataka, India

Experienced Stigma that is enacted through interpersonal acts of discrimination
Perceived Perception of the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes in the community or among other groups (e.g. healthcare providers)
Anticipated Fear of stigma, whether or not it is actually experienced
Secondary Stigma by association, extended to family or other caregivers of stigmatized individual
Observed Stigma occurring to others that is witnessed or heard about
Layered The intersecting of stigmas faced by individuals who are part of multiple marginalized groups
  1. Adapted from: Nyblade et al. “Perceived, anticipated and experienced stigma: exploring manifestations and implications for young people’s sexual and reproductive health and access to care in North-Western Tanzania” [35]