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Table 3 Multivariate Cox proportional regression of risk factor of osteoporosis between male and female

From: Effect of periodontitis on the development of osteoporosis: results from a nationwide population-based cohort study (2003–2013)

  Male Female
HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Age 30 ~ 39 (ref) 1    1   
40 ~ 49 4.32 0.96–19.43 0.057 8.49 4.34–16.60 <.0001
50 ~ 59 22.99 5.44–97.26 <.0001 22.62 11.57–44.20 <.0001
≥ 60 45.14 10.60–192.32 <.0001 29.47 15.0–57.90 <.0001
Smoking non-smoker (ref) 1    1   
ex-smoker 0.58 0.21–1.63 0.301 1.59 0.22–11.45 0.646
smoker 1.28 0.82–1.98 0.273 0.71 0.43–1.18 0.189
Alcohol None (ref) 1    1   
2 ~ 3/month 0.77 0.40–1.46 0.418 0.78 0.59–1.03 0.079
1 ~ 2/week 0.95 0.54–1.67 0.849 0.75 0.49–1.15 0.188
3 ~ 4/week 0.93 0.46–1.89 0.838 0.50 0.19–1.33 0.164
≥ 5/week 1.38 0.72–2.65 0.329 0.51 0.16–1.59 0.246
Physical activity None (ref) 1    1   
1 ~ 2/week 0.63 0.37–1.08 0.092 0.83 0.67–1.03 0.082
3 ~ 4/week 0.49 0.20–1.25 0.135 0.82 0.61–1.11 0.207
5 ~ 7/week 0.75 0.40–1.43 0.380 1.02 0.79–1.31 0.894
BMI(kg/m2) < 18.5 1.31 0.51–3.37 0.578 0.89 0.55–1.43 0.632
18.5 ~ 23 (ref) 1    1   
23 ~ 27.5 0.92 0.60–1.42 0.720 0.74 0.63–0.87 0.000
> 27.5 0.33 0.10–1.08 0.066 0.59 0.45–0.77 <.0001
CCI 0 (ref) 1    1   
1 1.89 1.17–3.05 0.010 1.20 1.00–1.43 0.046
≥ 2 2.25 1.34–3.78 0.002 1.36 1.11–1.66 0.003
Hypertension NO (ref) 1    1   
YES 1.21 0.63–2.31 0.569 1.03 0.83–1.28 0.807
Diabetes NO (ref) 1    1   
YES 1.65 0.65–4.15 0.290 1.46 1.02–2.10 0.041
Periodontitis NO (ref) 1    1   
YES 1.39 0.85–2.29 0.190 1.22 1.01–1.48 0.038
  1. IW industrial worker, SE self-employer, BMI body mass index, CCI Charlson comorbidity index