Skip to main content

Table 3 Fixed-effects of multilevel logistic regression showing influence of explanatory variables on likelihood of spousal violence

From: Is the likelihood of spousal violence lower or higher among childless women? Evidence from Nigeria demographic and health surveys

Characteristic Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
Parity
 Childlessref 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Only one child 1.293*** 0.790 2.114 1.250*** 0.762 2.051 1.295*** 0.789 2.126 1.223*** 0.739 2.023
 Two or more children 1.570** 1.074 2.294 1.523** 1.037 2.247 1.672** 1.140 2.452 1.508** 1.017 2.234
Maternal age
 35–39 yearsref    1.000    1.000
 40–44 years    0.927*** 0.813 1.056     
 45–49 years    0.861** 0.751 0.988     
Education
 Noneref    1.000    1.000
 Primary    1.566* 1.351 1.816     
 Secondary    1.285** 1.086 1.519     
 Higher    0.754** 0.591 0.961     
Age at first marriage
 Less than 15 yearsref    1.000    1.000
 15–19 years    1.037*** 0.893 1.203     
 20–24 years    1.238** 1.041 1.471     
 25 years or older    1.087*** 0.887 1.332     
Pregnancy termination
 Ever terminatedref    1.000    1.000
 Never terminated    0.707* 0.613 0.816     
Proportion who justified wife-battery
 Low      1.000 1.000
 High      1.462* 1.245 1.718 1.425* 1.216 1.671
Proportion who witnessed interparental violence
 Low      1.000 1.000
 High      1.510* 1.294 1.761 1.359* 1.167 1.582
Community residence type
 Urbanref      1.000 1.000
 Rural      1.125*** 0.979 1.292 1.005*** 0.855 1.182
Geographic region
 North-centralref      1.000 1.000
 North-east      1.077*** 0.879 1.319 1.274** 1.120 1.590
 North-west      0.314* 0.326 0.478 0.544* 0.439 0.676
 South-east      1.157*** 0.911 1.471 0.792*** 0.618 1.014
 South-south      0.770** 0.600 0.988 0.540* 0.417 0.698
 South-west      0.528** 0.411 0.676 0.479* 0.372 0.616
Type of marriage
 Monogamyref        1.000
 Polygyny        1.276* 1.125 1.448
Partner alcoholic consumption
 Does not drinkref        1.000
 Drinks        2.952* 2.563 3.400
Family power relation
 Not male dominatedref        1.000
 Male dominated        0.879** 0.774 0.998
Household wealth
 Poorestref        1.000
 Poorer        1.101*** 0.915 1.323
 Middle        1.058*** 0.861 1.301
 Richer        0.935*** 0.737 1.188
 Richest        0.771*** 0.580 1.024
  1. Ref. (reference category); *p < 0.001, **p < 0.05, ***p > 0.05 (not significant)