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Table 1 Univariate analysis for presence of dysmenorrhea among the study participants

From: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and predictors of its pain intensity among Palestinian female university students

Variables Total (%) Presence of dysmenorrhea P value
YES (%) No (%)
College 956 814 (85.1) 142 (14.9) 0.859
 Engineering/Science 216 (22.6) 182 (22.4) 34 (23.9)
 Humanities and social sciences 592 (61.9) 507 (62.3) 85 (59.9)
 M 148 (15.5) 125 (15.4) 23 (16.2)
Age (years) 19.73 ± 1.5    0.806
  < 20 704 (73.6) 600 (73.7) 104 (73.2)
  ≥ 20 252 (26.4) 214 (26.3) 38 (26.8)
Age at menarche (years)     0.027
  ≤ 14 655 (68.5) 569 (69.9) 86 (60.6)
  > 14 301 (31.5) 245 (30.1) 56 (39.4)
Regular     0.703
 Always 248 (25.9) 213 (26.2) 35 (24.6)
 Not always 708 (74.1) 601 (73.8) 107 (75.4)
Duration of menses (days)     0.339
  ≤ 5 510 (53.3) 429 (52.7) 81 (57)
  > 5 446 (46.7) 385 (47.3) 61 (43)
Education of the mother     0.464
  ≤ High school 625 (65.4) 536 (65.8) 89 (62.7)
  ≥ College 331 (34.6) 278 (34.2) 53 (37.3)
Education of the father     0.761
  ≤ High school 496 (51.9) 424 (52.1) 72 (49.3)
  ≥ College 460 (48.1) 390 (47.9) 70 (50.7)
Socioeconomic level     0.628
  ≤ Average (~  400 USD) 684 (71.5) 580 (71.3) 104 (73.2)
  > Average 272 (28.5) 234 (28.7) 38 (26.8)
Smoking     0.274
 Yes 158 (16.5) 139 (17.1) 19 (13.4)
 No 798 (83.5) 675 (82.9) 123 (86.6)
BMI     0.099
  < 18.5 104 (11.3) 81 (10.3) 23 (16.9)
 18.5–24.9 694 (75.4) 602 (76.7) 92 (67.6)
 25–29.9 101 (11) 84 (10.7) 17 (12.5)
  > 30 22 (2.4) 18 (2.3) 4 (2.9)
Breakfast     0.984
 Every day 243 (25.4) 207 (25.4) 36 (25.4)
 Sometimes/Never 713 (74.6) 607 (74.6) 106 (74.6)
Tea/coffee/Nescafe     0.0748
  ≤ 1 cup 312 (32.6) 264 (32.4) 48 (33.8)
  ≥ 2 cup 644 (67.4) 550 (67.6) 94 (66.2)
Vegetables and fruits     0.804
 Never or low 203 (21.3) 172 (21.2) 31 (22)
 Moderate 594 (62.3) 506 (62.3) 88 (62.4)
 High 119 (12.5) 104 (12.8) 15 (10.6)
 Very high 37 (3.9) 30 (3.7) 7 (5)
Meat and protein rich diet     0.328
 Never or low 227 (23.8) 190 (23.4) 37 (26.2)
 Moderate 596 (62.5) 517 (63.6) 79 (56)
 High 99 (10.4) 80 (9.8) 19 (13.5)
 Very high 32 (3.4) 26 (3.2) 6 (4.3)
Sweets and sugary beverages     0.240
 Never or low 81 (8.5) 63 (7.7) 18 (12.9)
 Moderate 523 (54.9) 452 (55.6) 71 (50.7)
 High 290 (30.4) 248 (s) 42 (30)
 Very high 59 (6.2) 50 (6.2) 9 (6.4)
Salty foods     0.326
 Never or low 96 (10.1) 77 (9.5) 19 (13.6)
 Moderate 444 (46.6) 387 (47.7) 57 (40.7)
 High 319 (33.5) 269 (33.1) 50 (35.7)
 Very high 93 (9.8) 79 (9.7) 14 (10)
Exercise     0.721
 Yes 329 (34.4) 282 (34.6) 47 (33.1)
 No 627 (65.6) 532 (65.4) 95 (66.9)
Interval between cycles (days)     0.215
 Normal (21–35) 745 (77.9) 640 (78.6) 105 (73.9)
 Abnormal (<  21 or > 35) 211 (22.1) 174 (21.4) 37 (26.1)
Living     0.866
 With family 780 (81.6) 664 (81.7) 116 (82.3)
 In dormitories 174 (18.2) 149 (18.3) 25 (17.7)