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Table 2 Participant characteristics stratified by frequency of milk consumption

From: Normal/high-fat milk consumption is associated with higher lean body and muscle mass in Japanese women aged between 40 and 60 years: a cross-sectional study

  Non- consumer Exclusive low-fat milk consumer Exclusive normal/high-fat milk consumer
(N = 27) (N = 18) (N = 29)
Age, y 48.6 (5.7) 51.0 (5.1) 50.0 (4.8)
Menopausal status, %
 Premenopausal 44.4 38.9 51.7
 Perimenopausal 22.2 11.1 13.8
 Postmenopausal 33.3 38.9 24.1
 Surgically induced menopause 0.0 11.1 10.3
Lifestyle factors, %
 Working 96.3 88.9 89.7
 Exercising regularly 33.3 55.6 41.4
 Smoking 11.1 0.0 13.8
 Alcohol consumption
  (Daily 22.2 11.1 13.8
  On occasion 51.9 66.7 55.2
  Never) 25.9 22.2 31.0
Body composition
 Weight, kg 53.2 (7.0) 51.7 (7.5) 54.1 (6.8)
 Body mass index, kg/cm2 21.9 (2.7) 21.5 (3.3) 21.8 (2.5)
 Lean body mass, kg 37.9 (2.2) 37.6 (2.9) 39.4 (2.7)ab
 Body water, kg 27.3 (1.9) 27.8 (3.8) 28.6 (2.2)a
 Body water percentage, % 51.8 (4.2) 52.7 (4.6) 53.3 (3.8)
 Estimated bone mass, kg 2.17 (0.20) 2.14 (0.25) 2.29 (0.23)ab
 Visceral fat level 4.59 (2.22) 4.38 (2.04) 4.44 (2.57)
 Basal metabolic rate, kcal/day 1100 (84) 1084 (94) 1136 (91)
 Muscle mass, kg 35.8 (2.0) 35.5 (2.7) 37.2 (2.5)ab
 Fat mass, kg 15.3 (5.4) 14.3 (5.7) 14.6 (5.1)
 Body fat percentage, % 28.0 (6.5) 26.6 (7.8) 26.4 (6.3)
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated
  2. aP < 0.05 for unpaired t test compared with non-consumers
  3. bP < 0.05 for unpaired t test compared with exclusive low-fat milk consumers