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Table 2 Factors affecting the menstrual cycle irregularity of premenopausal women (KNHANES, 2010-2012)

From: Factors associated with menstrual cycle irregularity and menopause

  Univariate logistic (n = 4788) Multivariable (n = 4773) Multivariable (n = 4388)
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age, years
 19 to < 30 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 30 to <40 0.47 0.37 0.61 0.60 0.41 0.90 0.63 0.41 0.95
 ≥ 40 0.75 0.60 0.93 0.79 0.52 1.18 0.84 0.55 1.28
Residence
 Rural 1.00         
 Urban 0.83 0.62 1.12       
Household income, quartiles
 I 1.00         
 II 0.84 0.63 1.12       
 III 1.19 0.89 1.59       
 IV 1.01 0.76 1.35       
Marital status
 Married 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 Not married 1.51 1.24 1.85 1.46 1.00 2.14 1.73 1.38 2.16
Educational level
 Elementary school and below 1.91 1.24 2.94 2.04 1.28 3.25 2.07 1.24 3.46
 Middle school 1.69 1.18 2.42 1.81 1.23 2.66 1.79 1.20 2.65
 High school 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 University and above 0.63 0.50 0.79 0.65 0.51 0.82 0.60 0.47 0.76
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 1.00         
 Ex-smoker 0.95 0.59 1.54 0.97 0.58 1.60    
 Current smoker 1.40 1.01 1.94 1.11 0.79 1.56    
Secondhand smoking
 None 1.00         
 < 1 h 0.99 0.58 1.69       
 ≥ 1 h 1.00 0.69 1.43       
Cigarettes per day
 Non-smoker 1.00         
 < 20 cigarettes 1.24 0.93 1.65       
 ≥ 20 cigarettes 1.10 0.45 2.71       
Age at smoking initiation
 Non-smoker 1.00         
 < 20 years 1.35 0.93 1.97       
 ≥ 20 years 1.10 0.74 1.64       
Pack-year
 Non-smoker 1.00         
 Above the median (2.5 pack-years) 1.45 1.01 2.10       
 Below or equal to the median (2.5 pack-years) 1.04 0.67 1.61       
Alcohol consumption
 None 1.00         
 ≤ 1 time per month 1.13 0.83 1.54       
 2–4 times a month 0.89 0.62 1.26       
 2–3 times a week 0.94 0.60 1.46       
 ≥ 4 times a week 1.58 0.78 3.20       
Body mass index
 0 to < 18.5 kg/m2 1.06 0.73 1.55 0.92 0.62 1.36    
 18.5 to < 23 kg/m2 1.00    1.00      
 23 to < 25 kg/m2 1.09 0.82 1.43 1.11 0.84 1.49    
 25 to < 30 kg/m2 1.58 1.23 2.04 1.56 1.19 2.03    
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 2.14 1.42 3.23 1.81 1.17 2.79    
Perceived stress
 Little 1.00    1.00    1.00   
 A little 1.02 0.70 1.50 1.07 0.73 1.57 1.09 0.72 1.65
 Much 1.34 0.90 2.00 1.31 0.89 1.95 1.28 0.83 1.98
 Very much 1.83 1.12 3.01 1.73 1.05 2.86 1.74 1.02 2.99
Modifiable risk factor scorea
 0        1.00   
 1        1.13 0.75 1.70
 2        1.30 0.83 2.05
 ≥ 3        1.61 1.03 2.52
  1. OR odds ratios, CI confidence interval
  2. aThe given scores were summed and categorized based on smoking status, obesity level, and drinking frequency. The given score of each variable was as follows: 0 point each for non-smokers, underweight to overweight (0 to < 25 BMI), and nondrinkers; 1 point each for ex-smokers, obesity I (25 to < 30), and 1–4 times per month alcohol consumption frequency; and 2 points each current smoker, obesity II (≥30 BMI), and ≥ 2 times a week alcohol consumption frequency