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Table 3 Relationship between menstrual characteristics as well as socio-economic factors and dysmenorrhea

From: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea among University students in Northern Ghana; its impact and management strategies

Variables Number of respondents (percentage) Presence of dysmenorrhea Chi square (df); p-value
Yes (n = 245) No (n = 48)
Age of respondents (years) < 20 32 (97.0%) 1 (3.0%) 8.28 (2); 0.016a
20–25 185 (83.7%) 36 (16.3%)
> 25 28 (71.8%) 11 (28.2%)
Age of menarche (years) <  13 74 (89.2%) 9 (10.8%) 3.45 (2); 0.178
13–15 129 (80.1%) 32 (19.9%)
> 15 42 (85.7%) 7 (14.3%)
Gynecological age (years) < 5 12 (85.7) 2 (14.3) 10.09 (2); 0.006a
5–10 187 (87.4) 27 (12.6)
> 10 46 (70.8) 19 (29.2)
Religious affiliation Christianity 181 (87.0%) 27 (13.0%) NA (NA); 0.098
Islam 62 (78.5%) 17 (21.5%)
Type of accommodation at menarche Single room 34 (73.9%) 12 (26.1%) 6.16 (4); 0.188
Chamber and hall 46 (83.6%) 9 (16.4%)
Several rooms in a compound house 42 (80.8%) 10 (19.2%)
Self-contained apartment 112 (88.9%) 14 (11.1%)
Mansion 8 (80.0%) 2 (20.0%)
Area of residence during vacation Urban area 150 (82.9%) 31 (17.1%) 0.927 (2); 0.629
Sub-urban 75 (85.2%) 13 (14.8%)
Rural 19 (90.5%) 2 (9.5%)
Type of menstrual cycle Regular 178 (84.0%) 34 (16.0%) NA (NA); 0.572
Irregular 61 (87.1%) 9 (12.9%)
Nature of menstrual flow Light 5 (62.5%) 3 (37.5%) 2.77 (2); 0.250
Moderate 207 (84.5%) 38 (15.5%)
Heavy 32 (84.2%) 6 (15.8%)
Number of days of flow < 3 days 6 (66.7%) 3 (33.3%) 2.603 (2); 0.272
3–5 days 188 (83.2%) 38 (16.8%)
> 5 days 44 (88.0%) 6 (22.0%)
Level of exercising Exercise often 101 (85.6%) 17 (14.4%) NA (NA); 0.053
Does no exercise 131 (82.0%) 41 (18.0%)
  1. aNA – Not applicable since Fisher’s e = exact test was used