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Table 2 Questions used to assess different forms of intimate partner violence experienced by women taking part in the MAISHA study (taken from the WHO Violence Against Women instrument [8])

From: A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact on intimate partner violence of a 10-session participatory gender training curriculum delivered to women taking part in a group-based microfinance loan scheme in Tanzania (MAISHA CRT01): study protocol

Type of violence Questions
Physical violence Has your current partner or any other partner ever:
1. Slapped you or thrown something at you that could hurt you?
2. Pushed you or shoved you or pulled your hair?
3. Hit you with his fist or with something else that could hurt you?
4. Kicked you, dragged you or beaten you up?
5. Choked or burnt you on purpose?
6. Threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against you?
Sexual violence Have you ever had sexual intercourse with your current partner or any other partner:
1. After he forced you by threatening you, holding you down or hurting you in some way?
2. When you did not want to because you were afraid that your partner would hurt you or someone you cared about if you refused?
3. When you did not want to because you were afraid that your partner would leave you or take another girlfriend if you refused?
Controlling behavior Thinking about your (current or most recent/past) partner, would you say it is generally true that he:
1. Tries to keep you from seeing your friends?
2. Tries to restrict contact with your family of birth?
3. Insists on knowing where you are at all times?
4. Is jealous and gets angry if you speak with another man?
5. Is often suspicious that you are unfaithful?
Economic abuse Thinking about your (current or most recent/past) partner, would you say it is generally true that he:
1. Refuses to give you enough money for household expenses, even when he has money for other things?
2. Takes money that you have earned away from you?
3. Makes important financial decisions without consulting you?
Emotional abuse Has your current partner, or any other partner ever:
1. Insulted you or made you feel bad about yourself?
2. Belittled or humiliated you in front of other people?
3. Done things to scare or intimidate you on purpose (e.g. by the way he looked at you, by yelling and smashing things)?
4. Verbally threatened to hurt you or someone you care about?
  1. For each type of violence/abuse, if a woman answers yes to one of more of the questions, then she is recorded has having experienced that form of violence/abuse
  2. A woman is recorded as having experienced physical and/or sexual violence (primary outcome) if she answers yes to one or more of the six questions relating to physical violence and/or one or more of the three questions relating to sexual violence