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Table 1 Characteristics for survey participants and bivariate associations between IPV and demographic and psychosocial factors

From: Domestic and intimate partner violence among pregnant women in a low resource setting in South Africa: a facility-based, mixed methods study

Participant characteristics Total (n = 376) n (%) Intimate Partner Violence
Positive (n = 58) n (%) Negative (n = 318) n (%)
Age: 18–24 years 146 (39) 28 (49) 118 (37)
 25 29 years 114 (30) 21 (36) 93 (29)
  > 29 years 116 (31) 9 (15) 107 (34)*
Parity: Nulliparous 122 (32) 23 (40) 99 (31)
 Primiparous 128 (34) 19 (33) 109 (34)
 Secundiparous 83 (22) 9 (15) 74 (23)
 Multiparous 43 (11) 7 (12) 36 (12)
Gravida: Primigravida 96 (26) 18 (32) 78 (24)
 Secundigravida 114 (30) 20 (34) 94 (30)
 Multigravida 166 (45) 20 (34) 146 (46)
Gestation: 1st trimester 96(32) 14 (32) 82 (32)
 2nd trimester 175 (58) 27 (61) 148 (58)
 3rd trimester 29 (10) 3 (7) 26 (10)
Education level (≥Grade 10) 225 (60) 36 (62) 189 (59)
Working currently 159 (42) 16 (28) 143 (45)*
Socio Economic Status: Least poor 94 (25) 16 (28) 78 (25)
 Poor 94 (25) 15 (26) 79 (25)
 Very poor 96 (26) 11 (19) 85 (27)
 Poorest 91 (24) 16 (28) 75 (24)
Food insecure 158 (42) 36 (62) 122 (38)**
Relationship type: Married 146 (39) 14 (24) 132 (42)
 Stable partner 192 (51) 38 (66) 154 (49)
 Casual partner 16 (4) 2 (3) 14 (4)
 Single 22 (6) 4 (7) 16 (5)
Perceived support from family 23 (5) 21.86 (SD 5.23)a 22.66 (SD 5.04)a
Perceived support from friends 20 (7) 18.34 (SD 6.80)a 20.30 (SD 6.70)a
Perceived support from “special person” 24 (4) 22.62a (SD 4.87)a 24.33a (SD 3.68)a
Past abuseb 89(24) 29 (50) 60 (19)**
Not pleased with pregnancy 81 (22) 23 (40) 58 (18)**
Major Depressive Episode (MDE) 81 (22) 23 (40) 58 (18)**
Any anxiety disorder 86 (23) 21 (36) 65 (20)*
Suicidal Ideation or Behaviour (SIB) 69 (18) 18 (31) 51 (16)*
Alcohol and other drug use (AoD) 65 (17) 17 (29) 48 (15)*
History of mental health problems 57 (15) 14 (24) 43 (14)*
  1. *significant at p ≤ 0.05, **significant at p ≤ 0.01
  2. a mean score
  3. bFrom item on RFA “I have experienced some kind of abuse in the past e.g. physical, emotional, sexual, rape”