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Table 4 Communication device use and Loneliness Scale scores

From: Loneliness among mothers raising children under the age of 3 years and predictors with special reference to the use of SNS: a community-based cross-sectional study

Communication device* Number Percent Loneliness Scale score (mean ± SD) p value
Traditional cell phones 522   0.052
 Don’t have 432 82.8% 35.6 ± 9.8  
  < 0.5 h 61 11.7% 37.8 ± 8.5  
 0.5–1 h 12 2.3% 41.0 ± 8.7  
 1–2 h 9 1.7% 43.0 ± 8.4  
 2–3 h 6 1.1% 34.8 ± 10.4  
  ≥ 3 h 2 0.4% 38.0  
 Don’t know 0 0.0%   
 No answer 1    
Smartphones 522   0.001
 Don’t have 65 12.5% 38.4 ± 8.5  
  < 0.5 h 48 9.2% 36.4 ± 10.1  
 0.5–1 h 113 21.6% 34.9 ± 9.0  
 1–2 h 138 26.4% 33.7 ± 9.1  
 2–3 h 96 18.4% 37.5 ± 10.1  
  ≥ 3 h 53 10.2% 38.7 ± 11.3  
 Don’t know 9 1.7% 40.8 ± 6.2  
 No answer 1    
Tablets 522   0.041
 Don’t have 431 82.6% 36.1 ± 9.8  
  < 0.5 h 59 11.3% 34.3 ± 8.7  
 0.5–1 h 18 3.4% 36.2 ± 9.9  
 1–2 h 8 1.5% 39.8 ± 5.8  
 2–3 h 5 1.0% 47.8 ± 3.9  
  ≥ 3 h 1 0.2% 46.0  
 Don’t know 0 0.0%   
 No answer 1    
Personal computers 521   0.625
 Don’t have 268 51.3% 35.8 ± 9.9  
  < 0.5 h 190 36.4% 36.1 ± 9.5  
 0.5–1 h 26 5.0% 36.7 ± 9.4  
 1–2 h 17 3.3% 38.1 ± 9.5  
 2–3 h 5 1.0% 42.8 ± 5.3  
  ≥ 3 h 15 2.9% 36.4 ± 9.2  
 Don’t know 0 0.0%   
 No answer 2    
  1. *All participants used some type of communication device