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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample and bivariate analysis by experience of any intimate partner violence

From: Intimate partner violence against women in Nigeria: a multilevel study investigating the effect of women’s status and community norms

  Never experienced IPV Experienced IPV Total
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Women's status p < 0.001   
 Low 5168 (32.7) 1764 (33.5) 6932 (32.8)
 Middle 5138 (33.8) 1815 (35.2) 6953 (34.1)
 High 5296 (33.6) 1621 (31.3) 6917 (33.0)
Age groups p < 0.001   
 15–24 4046 (25.1) 1071 (19.9) 5117 (23.9)
 25–34 6229 (37.7) 2253 (40.4) 8482 (38.3)
 35–44 3870 (26.3) 1446 (29.9) 5316 (27.2)
 45–49 1591 (10.9) 454 (9.7) 2045 (10.6)
Residence p < 0.001   
 Urban 5547 (35.3) 1976 (41.1) 7523 (36.7)
 Rural 10,055 (64.7) 3224 (58.9) 13,279 (63.3)
Wealth level p < 0.001   
 Poorest 3455 (25.3) 764 (14.1) 4219 (22.7)
 Poorer 3283 (21.3) 1108 (21.5) 4391 (21.4)
 Middle 2819 (16.9) 1157 (21.4) 3976 (18.0)
 Richer 2948 (17.5) 1144 (21.0) 4092 (18.3)
 Richest 3097 (19.0) 1027 (22.1) 4124 (19.7)
Region p < 0.001   
 North Central 2384 (12.6) 943 (17.9) 3327 (13.8)
 North East 2396 (14.8) 1427 (21.9) 3823 (16.5)
 North West 5506 (42.5) 514 (17.2) 6020 (36.5)
 South East 1296 (7.3) 589 (11.8) 1885 (8.4)
 South South 1743 (8.3) 958 (14.5) 2701 (9.8)
 South West 2411 (14.6) 793 (16.8) 3204 (15.1)
Partner’s controlling behaviour p < 0.001   
 No controlling behaviour 6584 (41.6) 832 (17.2) 7416 (35.9)
 Has controlling behaviour 9018 (58.4) 4368 (82.8) 13,386 (64.1)
Woman’s attitude to wife-beating p < 0.001   
 Does not justify wife-beating 10,030 (65.8) 2725 (53.4) 12,755 (62.8)
 Justifies wife-beating 5572 (34.2) 2475 (46.6) 8047 (37.2)
Community level male justification of wife-beating p < 0.001   
 No justification 2023 (14.2) 378 (6.7) 2401 (12.5)
 Justification 13,579 (85.8) 4822 (93.3) 18,401 (87.6)
Community level control of female behaviour p < 0.001   
 Low 5681 (35.3) 998 (19.6) 6679 (31.6)
 Moderate 4804 (29.4) 1861 (39.1) 6665 (31.7)
 High 5117 (35.3) 2341 (41.4) 7458 (36.8)
TOTAL 15,602 (76.4) 5200 (23.6) 20,802 (100)
  1. Significance level- α < 0.05; Percentages (%) are weighted. N = 20,802