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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with ever receiving a positive HR-HPV DNA test result among women who had at least one HR-HPV DNA test through NJCEED, 2009–2015

From: Factors associated with high-risk human papillomavirus test utilization and infection: a population-based study of uninsured and underinsured women

  Proportion that ever received a positive HR-HPV test result (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age at enrollment into NJCEED (years)
 29–39 21.7 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 40–49 12.2 0.50 (0.44–0.57) 0.46 (0.40–0.52)
  ≥ 50 10.7 0.44 (0.38–0.50) 0.40 (0.35–0.46)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 16.4 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Non-Hispanic Black 12.4 0.72 (0.61–0.85) 0.75 (0.62–0.90)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 9.2 0.52 (0.41–0.66) 0.94 (0.58–1.51)
 Hispanic 13.1 0.77 (0.68–0.87) 0.66 (0.55–0.79)
Country/region of birth
 USA 15.1 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Central and South America 13.5 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.96 (0.81–1.15)
 Caribbean 13.0 0.84 (0.71–0.98) 1.07 (0.88–1.29)
 Africa 7.8 0.48 (0.29–0.77) 0.54 (0.33–0.89)
 Asia and the Middle East 8.8 0.54 (0.43–0.68) 0.53 (0.33–0.86)
 Europe, Russia and Australia and Oceania 11.2 0.71 (0.53–0.93) 0.63 (0.47–0.84)
 Other countriesa 14.6 0.96 (0.74–1.25) 1.01 (0.77–1.32)
Number of cervical screening visits
 1 11.5 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 2 14.0 1.26 (1.11–1.43) 1.31 (1.15–1.49)
  ≥ 3 18.5 1.75 (1.55–1.98) 1.86 (1.64–2.11)
Proportion of residents in ZCTA who are below the FPL
 Quintile 1 (0.0–6.9%) 11.7 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Quintile 2 (7.0–10.8%) 14.6 1.29 (1.10–1.52) 1.23 (1.04–1.45)
 Quintile 3 (10.9–18.5%) 16.1 1.45 (1.23–1.70) 1.46 (1.24–1.72)
 Quintile 4 (18.7–23.7%) 12.6 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 1.15 (0.96–1.38)
 Quintile 5 (24.4–100.0%) 12.5 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 1.12 (0.95–1.32)
Proportion of minority residents in ZCTA
 Quintile 1 (0.0–26.6%) 15.2 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (26.7–49.0%) 16.2 1.07 (0.91–1.26)  
 Quintile 3 (50.4–76.4%) 11.0 0.69 (0.59–0.81)  
 Quintile 4 (76.5–87.2%) 14.6 0.95 (0.80–1.13)  
 Quintile 5 (87.8–98.8%) 11.8 0.75 (0.64–0.87)  
Proportion of uninsured residents in ZCTA
 Quintile 1 (0.0–13.0%) 13.0 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (13.1–20.3%) 15.7 1.24 (1.05–1.46)  
 Quintile 3 (20.4–28.8%) 12.8 0.97 (0.83–1.14)  
 Quintile 4 (29.2–37.9%) 13.2 1.01 (0.86–1.19)  
 Quintile 5 (38.1–100.0%) 12.5 0.95 (0.81–1.12)  
Proportion of residents in ZCTA who don’t speak English very well
 Quintile 1 (0.0–5.7%) 16.5 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (5.8–11.3%) 14.5 0.86 (0.73–1.02)  
 Quintile 3 (11.4–19.1%) 11.5 0.66 (0.56–0.77)  
 Quintile 4 (19.2–34.3%) 12.3 0.71 (0.61–0.83)  
 Quintile 5 (34.6–51.6%) 13.5 0.79 (0.67–0.93)  
  1. Multivariable-adjusted model was adjusted for all variables listed. Area-level measures are based on the distributions of the NJCEED study sample. We also tested the effect of including year (which was significantly associated with HR-HPV DNA testing rates but not HR-HPV infection), and the observed associations remained consistent. Bolded values represent statistically significant associations (P <0.05)