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Table 1 Sample characteristics and OR (adjusted for woman’s age and urban/rural location) with past year physical or sexual violence

From: Unequal power relations and partner violence against women in Tanzania: a cross-sectional analysis

   N % Past year Violence OR p-value
Woman’s characteristics
 Married Married 936 31.7 1  
  Cohabiting (not married) 342 33.6 1.14 0.487
 Education No education 205 38.0 1  
  Incomplete primary 170 43.3 1.29 0.422
  complete primary 688 31.8 0.73 0.161
  Incomplete secondary 88 27.7 0.52 0.202
  Complete secondary or higher 127 22.3 0.51 0.055
 Working Not working 219 28.0 1  
  Unpaid/ in-kind 453 36.2 1.37 0.233
  Seasonal paid 287 39.8 1.68 0.056
  Stable paid 319 26.2 0.96 0.890
 Capital assets Doesn’t own 551 26.3 1  
  Owns alone 307 36.2 1.85 0.003
  Joint ownership 420 39.1 2.04 < 0.001
 Parity None 112 26.2 1  
  1 213 30.9 1.51 0.240
  2 273 33.2 1.94 0.051
  3 234 35.4 2.51 0.012
  4 159 35.2 3.21 0.007
  5 or more 287 34.6 3.67 0.007
 Age at first cohabitation 21 years or more 310 27.2 1  
17 years or less 508 37.7 1.57 0.037
18–20 years 460 31.1 1.16 0.463
 Age at first intercourse 18 years or more 442 23.9 1  
17 years or less 836 37.3 1.85 0.001
 Attitudes No reason to hit 535 23.3 1  
  At least one reason to hit 743 39.7 2.08 < 0.001
 Alcohol use None or infrequent use 1185 31.4 1  
  Frequent use 93 54.4 3.16 < 0.001
 Non partner physical violence No 1193 32.2 1  
Yes 79 43.4 1.58 0.173
 Non partner sexual violence No 1217 32.2 1  
Yes 61 49.2 2.82 0.001
 Mother hit No / DK 823 26.2 1  
  Yes 455 44.6 2.47 < 0.001
Household characteristics
 Household SES Poorest 246 37.9 1  
Poorer 238 35.1 0.93 0.782
Middle 268 35.3 0.95 0.866
Richer 296 34.8 0.95 0.856
Richest 230 20.9 0.50 0.034
Man’s characteristics
 Age 20–29 339 37.1 1  
  30–39 575 33.7 0.95 0.830
  40–49 364 28.7 0.79 0.511
 Education No education 140 34.6 1  
  Incomplete primary 206 36.4 1.16 0.643
  complete primary 695 33.1 1.02 0.950
  Incomplete secondary 91 33.3 0.97 0.935
  Complete secondary or higher 146 27.9 0.94 0.850
 Working Unpaid / In-kinda 173 53.0 1  
  Seasonal paid 485 33.2 0.42 < 0.001
  Stable paid 619 28.5 0.37 < 0.001
 Attitudes No reason to hit 868 28.6 1  
  At least one reason to hit 410 41.8 1.90 < 0.001
 Polygamy No 1138 31.2 1  
  Yes 140 47.0 2.03 0.008
 Fathered children None or one woman 841 30.8 1  
  More than one woman 436 37.6 1.39 0.049
 Frequent alcohol use No 968 27.3 1  
Yes 287 50.3 1.96 0.001
Relational factors
 Relative age Same 556 35.0 1  
Him older 5–9 years 468 33.7 0.86 0.415
Him older 10+ years 234 27.7 0.58 0.010
Her older 5+ years 20 30.0 0.88 0.836
 Relative education Both no education 58 42.2 1  
Both same 590 30.9 0.73 0.393
His higher 347 37.0 1.03 0.945
Hers higher 283 30.7 0.69 0.336
 Relative employment status Both unpaid/ not working 111 53.9 1  
Both same type 344 27.4 0.37 0.001
Him higher 677 32.5 0.45 0.003
Hers higher 145 36.0 0.53 0.057
 Relative attitudes Both no reason 395 20.5 1  
Both reason to hit 270 46.7 3.53 < 0.001
Him reason 140 31.3 1.82 0.039
Her reason 473 35.3 1.99 0.001
 Relative alcohol use Neither use 940 29.5 1  
Both used 63 57.1 4.70 < 0.001
Him only 224 38.6 1.72 0.012
Her only 28 49.9 2.44 0.031
  1. aIncludes Not working