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Table 2 Multilevel regression of the likelihoods of depressive symptoms in relation to caregiving and social risk factors at individual and country levels among female Baby Boomers

From: Is caregiving by baby boomer women related to the presence of depressive symptoms? Evidence from eight national surveys

  OR (95% CI)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Individual-level variables
 Caregiving 1.30 *** 1.30 *** 1.30 *** 1.30 *** 1.30 *** 1.30 ***
(1.16–1.46) (1.16–1.46) (1.16–1.46) (1.16–1.46) (1.16–1.46) (1.16–1.46)
 Married 0.46 *** 0.46 *** 0.46 *** 0.46 *** 0.46 *** 0.46 ***
(0.40–0.52) (0.40–0.52) (0.40–0.52) (0.40–0.52) (0.40–0.52) (0.40–0.52)
 Employed 0.53 *** 0.55 *** 0.55 *** 0.55 *** 0.55 *** 0.55 ***
(0.47–0.65) (0.47–0.64) (0.47–0.65) (0.47–0.65) (0.47–0.65) (0.47–0.65)
 Married x Employed 1.46 *** 1.46 *** 1.46 *** 1.46 *** 1.46 *** 1.46 ***
(1.23–1.74) (1.23–1.74) (1.23–1.74) (1.23–1.74) (1.23–1.74) (1.23–1.74)
 Education 0.78 *** 0.78 *** 0.78 *** 0.78 *** 0.78 *** 0.78 ***
(0.76–0.81) (0.76–0.80) (0.76–0.81) (0.76–0.81) (0.76–0.81) (0.76–0.81)
 Age 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.98 * 0.98 *
(0.97–0.998) (0.97–0.999) (0.97–0.997) (0.97–0.997) (0.97–0.998) (0.97–0.998)
Country-level variables
 Proportion of women in managerial or professional occupations   1.04 *     
  (1.01–1.08)     
 Female vulnerable employment    1.01 *    
   (1.0001–1.01)    
 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments     0.99   
    (0.98–1.00)   
 Adolescent fertility      1.01  
     (0.99–1.02)  
 Female labor force participation       1.00
      (0.98–1.01)
Random variance component Est. (S.E.) Est. (S.E.) Est. (S.E.) Est. (S.E.) Est. (S.E.) Est. (S.E.)
 Intercept at level 2 0.06 (0.03)* 0.30 (0.06)* 0.10 (0.04)* 0.08 (0.04)* 0.06 (0.03)* 0.10 (0.03)*
 Intercept at level 3 0.39 (0.13)*** 0.00002 (0.001) 0.19 (0.09)* 0.32 (0.08)* 0.30 (0.15)* 0.22 (0.09)*
Comparison to null model
 Chi-square 264.84*** 261.94*** 264.43*** 262.96*** 265.50*** 264.30***
 Degrees of freedom 6 7 7 7 7 7
  1. * p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio