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Table 2 Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and HBM scale for cervical cancer and the pap test

From: Using the health belief model to assess beliefs and behaviors regarding cervical cancer screening among Saudi women: a cross-sectional observational study

Socio-demographic characteristics N Knowledge about sing of CC (n = 450) Knowledge about risk factors (n = 450) Susceptibility
(n = 450)
Seriousness
(n = 450)
Benefits
(n = 450)
Health Motivation
(n = 450)
Barriers
(n = 450)
Total Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.) Median (Min. – Max.)
Age
  ≤ 20  years 16 2 (0–5) 19.5 (16–26) 7.5 (3–14) 20.5 (8–34) 34.5 (25–40) 11 (5–14) 54 (41–73)
 21–30 years 198 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–14) 21 (7–34) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 51(18–74)
 31–40 years 162 3 (0–10) 20 (8–40) 8 (3–15) 22 (7–35) 34 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 54 (18–85)
  > 40 years 74 2.5 (0–10) 21 (8–31) 8 (3–15) 21.5 (8–35) 36 (26–40) 12 (6–15) 51.5 (28–72)
P-value 450 0.550 0.887 0.467 0.479 0.047 0.069 0.128
Education levels
 Primary school 10 0.5 (0–7) 21 (16–35) 9 (7–14) 25 (15–33) 37.5 (28–40) 12 (6–15) 55.5 (34–72)
 Intermediate school 19 1 (0–6) 20 (14–24) 9 (3–13) 23 (8–34) 36 (22–40) 12 (3–15) 57 (33–72)
 High school 115 2 (0–9) 20 (8–34) 7 (3–15) 22 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 51 (18–85)
 University or higher 306 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 52 (18–80)
P-value 450 0.029 0.075 0.010 0.126 0.359 0.483 0.125
Employment status
 Working 206 3 (0–10) 21(8–40) 7.0 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 34.5 (9–40) 12 (3–15) 52 (20–81)
 Not working 244 2 (0–9) 20 (8–40) 7.0 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 52 (18–85)
P-value 450 0.001 0.675 0.224 0.857 0.169 0.783 0.831
Marital status
 Single 58 2.5 (0–9) 21 (14–40) 7 (6–15) 21.5 (8–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 56 (35–90)
 Married 366 3 (0–10) 20 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 56 (23–90)
 Divorce 22 1 (0–9) 23 (8–27) 8.5 (3–15) 21 (7–27) 34.5 (8–40) 11 (3–15) 54.5 (37–73)
 Widow 4 1 (0–4) 22.5 (15–30) 6 (9–15) 19 (16–21) 34.5 (10–40) 10.5 (5–15) 52.5 (44–54)
P-value 450 0.317 0.219 0.498 0 .568 0 .868 0 .326 0 .610
Age when married
 Less than 18 years 33 4 (0–10) 20 (8–26) 8 (3–14) 20 (7–34) 36 (8–40) 12 (3–12) 58 (36–70)
 18–29 years 325 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 56 (27–90)
 30–40 years 34 1 (0–9) 23 (12–35) 7 (6–15) 22.5 (7–35) 33.5 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 58 (23–86)
P-value 392 0.708 0.056 0.057 0.422 0.052 0.977 0.792
Marriage period
 1 month − 5 years 135 2 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 20 (7–35) 34 (17–40) 11 (5–15) 53 (21–85)
  > 5–10 years 108 3 (0–10) 20 (11–40) 8 (3–14) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 51 (18–77)
  > 10 years 149 3 (0–10) 20 (8–33) 7.6 (3–15) 22.5 (7–35) 35 (19–40) 12 (5–15) 52 (20–81)
P-value 392 0.703 0.378 0.148 0.387 0.055 0.005 0.626
Number of children
 None 128 2 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 22 (7–35) 34 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 55 (23–90)
 One child 83 1 (0–10) 21 (12–40) 7 (3–15) 22 (7–35) 34 (8–40) 11 (3–13) 57 (37–88)
 2 or 3 children 144 3 (0–10) 20 (8–40) 8 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 57 (28–90)
 4 children or more 95 3 (0–10) 19.7 (8–33) 8 (3–15) 19.2 (9–35) 35.7 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 57 (27–72)
p-value 450 0.273 0.041 0.016 0.237 0.077 0.058 0.142
Use contraceptive
 Yes 110 3 (0–10) 20 (8–40) 8 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 57 (27–78)
 No 340 2 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 55 (23–90)
 P-value 450 0.383 0.573 0.629 0.912 0.425 0.156 0.481
Smoking
 Yes 12 4 (0–6) 23.5 (17–28) 9 (8–15) 15.5 (12–31) 31.5 (9–40) 11.5 (3–15) 54 (46–88)
 No 438 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 56 (23–90)
P-value 450 0.947 0.237 0.488 0.538 0.027 0.129 0.744
Whether she had information about the Pap test?
 Yes 219 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–34) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 49 (18–81)
 No 231 2 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 8 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 54 (18–85)
P-value 450 0.001 0.906 0.593 0.887 0.858 0.217 P < 0.0001
Source of the information about the Pap test is:
 Health professional 121 3 (0–10) 21 (8–30) 7 (3–13) 21 (7–34) 35 (8–40) 11 (3–15) 48 (18–81)
 Family 17 5 (0–10) 18 (13–30) 7 (3–12) 20 (7–27) 35 (9–40) 12 (3–15) 42 (27–58)
 Media 62 3 (0–9) 21 (13–40) 7 (3–13) 21 (10–32) 35 (24–40) 12 (5–15) 52 (37–65)
 Other 19 4 (0–9) 22 (14–28) 8 (3–15) 22 (7–33) 36 (23–40) 12 (7–15) 51 (21–65)
 P-value 219 0.096 0.061 0.897 0.658 0.900 0.265 0.005
Family history cervical cancer
 Yes 22 2 (0–8) 22 (8–30) 9 (4–15) 23.5 (7–35) 35 (9–40) 11.5 (3–15) 54 (40–69)
 No 400 3 (0–10) 21 (8–40) 7 (3–15) 21 (7–35) 35 (8–40) 12 (3–15) 52 (18–85)
 I don’t know 28 2.5 (0–8) 20.5 (15–27) 7 (3–15) 21 (8–34) 33.5 (24–40) 12 (5–15) 51 (30–62)
P-value 450 0.945 0.626 0.014 0.263 0.760 0.196 0.736
  1. HBM Health Belief Model, CC Cervical Cancer