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Table 4 The association between flexibility of abortion laws and maternal mortality ratio after adjusting for GDP per capita and time trends, 1985–2013

From: Abortion laws reform may reduce maternal mortality: an ecological study in 162 countries

  Model adjusted for GDP and Time intervals (N = 3926, n = 161) Model adjusted for GDP, FPC, and Time interval (N = 1990, n = 144)
Flexibility score as a 7 level categorical variable (Baseline = Score 0)
Score Coefficient 95% Confidence interval p-value Coefficient 95% Confidence interval p-value
 Score 1 − 54 (−94, −14) 0.008 −13 (− 73, 48) 0.681
 Score 2 −69 (−119, −20) 0.006 −26 (−95, 43) 0.454
 Score 3 − 132 (−179, −85) < 0.001 −50 (− 116, 16) 0.134
 Score 4 −70 (−119, −21) 0.005 −11 (−75, 54) 0.748
 Score 5 −119 (− 166, −73) < 0.001 −65 (− 129, −2) 0.044
 Score 6 −17 (−86, 51) 0.622 2 (−83, 87) 0.965
 Score 7 −72 (− 118, −26) < 0.001 −18 (−79, 43) 0.56
 GDP 0.005 (0.004, 0.005) < 0.001 0.004 (0.003, 0.004) < 0.001
 FPC     −1.8 (−2.1, −1.4) < 0.001
 1990–1994* −42 (−51, −33) < 0.001 −39 (−50, −27) < 0.001
 1995–1999 − 77 (−86, −68) < 0.001 −72 (−84, −60) < 0.001
 2000–2004 −116 (− 126, − 107) < 0.001 −96 (− 108, −85) < 0.001
 2005–2009 − 173 (− 184, − 163) < 0.001 −134 (− 147, −120) < 0.001
 2010–2013 −220 (− 233, −206) < 0.001 − 164 (− 182, −147) < 0.001
 Constant 419 (379, 459) < 0.001 492 (429, 556) < 0.001
Flexibility score as a binary variable (Score < 3 versus > = 3)
 Flexibility Score > = 3 −45 (−64, – 26) < 0.001 −25 (−46, − 4) 0.022
 GDP 0.005 (0.004, 0.005) < 0.001 0.004 (0.003, 0.005) < 0.001
 FPC     −2 (−2, −1) < 0.001
 1990–1994* −42 (−51, −33) < 0.001 −39 (−50, −27) < 0.001
 1995–1999 −77 (−86, −68) < 0.001 −73 (−84, −61) < 0.001
 2000–2004 −116 (−126, − 107) < 0.001 −97 (− 109, −85) < 0.001
 2005–2009 −173 (− 184, −163) < 0.001 − 135 (− 148, − 121) < 0.001
 2010–2013 − 219 (− 232, − 205) < 0.001 − 165 (− 182, − 148) < 0.001
 Constant 369 (356, 383) < 0.001 485 (456, 515) < 0.001
  1. GDP Gross Domestic Product Per Capita (US$), FPC Female Primary Completion (Female, %)
  2. N = total number of observations, n = number of countries, *Baseline for five-year interval=1985-1989