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Table 1 Characteristics of studies which measured vitamin D metabolites longitudinally across the normal menstrual cycle in healthy women1

From: Vitamin D metabolites across the menstrual cycle: a systematic review

Author
(Year)
N Age range
(years)
Method(Sample Type) Mean (SD)25(OH)D
(ng/ml)
Mean (SD)1,25(OH)2D
(pg/ml)
Main Findings
Baran (1980)
[34]
12 19–34 RLRA (Serum) NA EF (Day 3): 47 (3)4
LF (Day 13): 51 (3)
No change in concentrations of 1,25 (OH)2D from day 3 to day 13
Gray (1982)
[35]
7 18–35 RIA (Serum) NA EF (Day 1): 53.4 (11.8) a;4
EF (Day 8): 56.3 (12.6) a
EL (Day 15): 121 (20.1) b
LL (Day 22): 86.9 (27.2)
Increase in concentration of 1,25(OH)2D from day 1 to day 15 Concentration of 1,25(OH)2D at midcycle was higher than days 1 and 8
Tjellesen (1983)
[42]
5 23–29 PBA2
UV-detection3
(Serum)
NR EF5: Mean change:
56% from day 2 to day 14
No change in concentration of 25(OH)D from day 2 to day 14
Concentration of 1,25(OH)2D increased from day 2 to day 14
Buchanan (1986)
[36]
20 24–44 RRA (Serum) NA EF: 34 (3)a
LF: 39 (3)
EL: 43 (3)b
LL: 37 (2)
A rise in the concentration of 1,25(OH)2D from the EF to EL phase
Muse (1986)
[37]
6 26–39 CRA (Serum) NA All: 40.1 (1.7)4;6 A slight, non-statistically significant change in 1,25(OH)2D across the cycle
Nielsen (1990)
[38]
8 20–47 RIA (Serum) NA EF: 56.5 (13.5)
LF: 57.3 (21.9)
EL: 57.6 (14.2)
LL: 56.9 (10.0)
No change in concentrations of 1,25 (OH)2D across the cycle
Thys-Jacobs (1995)
[40]
5 28–45 RRA2
RBA3
(Serum)
EF (Day 2)
Midcycle (Days 12,13,14,15)
LL (Day 26)
All: 45.6 (12.8)7
EF: NR
Midcycle:
44.8 (11.6)
LF: NR
All: 38.0 (8.8)7
EF (Day 2): 30.3 (8.4)
Midcycle (Days 12,13,14,15): 38.8 (14.6)
LL (Day 26): 37.3 (8.8)
No change in concentrations of 25(OH)D across the cycle
Statistical significance not reported for concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D across the cycle
Zittermann
(2000)
[43]
10 258 RRA2
HPLC3
(Serum)
EF: 10.3 (3.1)c
LF: 9.3 (2.6)
EL: 9.3 (2.4)
ML: 8.8 (2.6)
EF (next cycle): 8.4 (3.4)d
EF: 17.5 (4.1)
LF: 19.4 (5.5)
EL: 19.6 (5.1)
ML: 18.4 (5.3)
EF (next cycle): 17.1 (4.9)
No changes in 25(OH)D within the same cycle; Significant decrease in 25(OH)D from EF of one cycle to EF phase of next cycle
No change in concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D across the cycle
Thys-Jacobs (2007)
[41]
47 18–45 RRA2
CLA3
(Serum)
EF (Days 2 and 7)9
Midcycle (Days 12,13,14,15)
ML to LL (Days 22 and 27)10
All: 26.1 (10.8)11
EF (Days 2 and 7)
Midcycle (Days 12,13,14,15)
ML to LL (Days 22 and 27)
All: 49.0 (10.7)11
EF: 46.4a;12
LL: 52.1b;12
No change in concentrations of 25(OH)D across the cycle
Significant rise in concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D from EF to LL phase
Draper (2018)
[39]
34 19–39 CMIA MP, FP, PO, LP and PP: NR NA Significant decrease in concentration of 25(OH)D in the periovulatory and luteal phase
  1. CRA cytoreceptor assay, CLA chemiluminescence assay, CMIA chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, EF early follicular, EL early luteal, FP follicular phase, HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography, LF late follicular, LL late luteal, LP luteal phase, ML mid luteal, MP: menstrual phase; NA not applicable, NR not reported, PBA protein binding assay, PO periovulatory, PP pre-menstrual phase, RBA radiobinding assay, RIA radioimmunoassay, RLRA radioligand receptor assay, RRA radioreceptor assay
  2. 1All studies were conducted in the US except Tjellesen (1983) and Nielsen (1990) conducted in Denmark; Zittermann (2000) conducted in Germany and Draper (2018) conducted in Ireland
  3. 2Method used to measure concentration of 1,25(OH)2D
  4. 3Method used to measure the concentration of 25(OH)D
  5. 4Values are presented as mean (SE); SE, Standard Error
  6. 5Early follicular phase and days with highest concentration of estradiol (number of measurements not reported)
  7. 6Mean for all measurements across the cycle; measured daily throughout the cycle
  8. 7Mean for all measurements across the cycle
  9. 8Mean age reported
  10. 9Measurement for early follicular phase is approximately between day 6 to 2 days before ovulation
  11. 10Measurement for late luteal phase is approximately day 27 but varies according to the individual’s cycle
  12. 11Mean of measurement obtained after determining luteinizing hormone (LH) surge
  13. 12Standard deviation not reported
  14. a,bConcentrations of 1,25(OH)2D are significantly different between two time points
  15. c,dConcentrations of 25(OH)D are significantly different between two time points