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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies and interventions

From: Can mental health treatments help prevent or reduce intimate partner violence in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review

Authors, year Country Design Population Sample size Intervention Format Facilitators Study arms
Dedicated mental health interventions
 Jiang et al., 2014 [39] China RCT Adult men and women referred from mental health clinics or a community sample from a local high school affected by 2008 Sichuan earthquake with diagnosis of PTSD or major depressive disorder 49 Locally adapted version of interpersonal therapy (IPT). Treatment as usual (TAU): weekly medication management for any participant taking SSRI, SNRI or benzodiazepine; access to crisis counseling services 12 1-h weekly sessions delivered individually Majority psychologist/ psychiatrist (1) IPT and TAU; (2) TAU
 L’Engle et al. 2014: [43] Parcesepe et al., 2016 [44] Kenya RCT Adult female sex workers attending drop in centers identified as moderate-risk drinkers (harmful or hazardous use) 818 (565 contributed to analysis) Adaptation of WHO Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use, informed by stages of change and social cognitive theory, including motivational interviewing and goal setting. Nutrition control condition, 6 sessions of comparable length. 6 20-min counseling sessions delivered to individuals monthly Nurses (1) Alcohol counseling; (2) Nutrition intervention of comparable time also delivered by nurses
 Nadkarni et al. 2017a [47] and Nadkarni et al. 2017b [48] India RCT Adult men who screened positive as harmful drinkers at primary health care centers 377 (301 contributed to analysis) Counseling for alcohol problems (CAP), a manualized psychotherapy that includes teaching general and alcohol-specific cognitive and behavioral skills and problem solving with counsellor use of motivational interviewing and client-centered approach
Enhanced usual care (EUC) following adapted mhGAP guidelines in which the patient and primary health care provider received alcohol screening results and referrals to specialists as necessary
Up to 4 30–45 min sessions delivered over 4–8 weeks to individuals in primary care or home as necessary Lay counsellors with at least secondary school education (1) CAP and EUC; (2) EUC alone
 Patel et al., 2017 [45] and Weobong et al. 2017 [46] India RCT Adult men and women who screened as experiencing moderately severe to severe depression at primary health care centers 495 (377 married men and women contributed to analysis) Health Activity Program (HAP), a manualized psychotherapy based on behavioral activation. Enhanced usual care (EUC) following adapted mhGAP guidelines in which the patient and primary health care provider received screening results and made referrals to psychiatric care as necessary 6–8 30–50 min sessions delivered weekly to individuals in primary care, home, or telephone as necessary Lay counsellors with at least secondary school education (1) HAP and EUC; (2) EUC alone
Integrated interventions
 Carlson et al., 2012; [40] Witte et al., 2011 [41] Mongolia Cluster RCT Adult female sex workers participating in NGO services who reported unprotected sex and screened positive for harmful alcohol use 166 (74 contributed to analysis) HIV-STI Risk Reduction (HIV-SRR), a relationship-oriented and social cognitive theory-informed intervention including activities specific to protecting oneself from violence, enhanced with motivational interviewing (MI) HIV-SRR: 4 90-min weekly sessions; MI2 weekly 90-min sessions; control: 4 weekly sessions, delivered to groups of 6–8 women Females fluent in Mongol (1) HIV-SSR; (2) HIV-SSR + MI
(3) Control (wellness promotion training)
 Jewkes et al., 2014 [38] South Africa Pre-post, interrupted time series Community sample of adult men and women living in informal settlements characterized by extreme poverty; over 70% reported moderate or severe depression at baseline 232 (110 men, 122 women) Creating Futures: a livelihood intervention aimed at strengthening use of resources in individuals’ environments, and Stepping Stones: a participatory learning intervention focused on preventing HIV transmission and fostering more equitable gender norms and inter-partner communication. 21 3-h sessions delivered 2x per week for 12 weeks to single sex groups of 20 individuals Individuals of similar age to participants who completed secondary school No control condition
 Wechsberg et al., 2013 [42] South Africa RCT Community sample of women living in disadvantaged areas who report using at least two drugs (one of which could be alcohol) once a week over the past 3-months 720 (688 contributed to analysis) Women’s Health CoOp: an adapted women focused, empowerment-based HIV prevention intervention that also focuses on substance use and violence through use of role-playing, skill rehearsal, developing a risk-reduction plan, and provision of referrals. HIV counseling and testing (HCT). 2 1-h sessions delivered to groups of 4–6 women Peer female educators (1) WCH + HCT; (2) Nutrition + HCT; (3) HCT alone